Effective and recovery stresses in deformation studies of polyvinyl chloride and polypropylene using the modified strain transient dip test
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Partitioning the applied stress into internal stress components (effective and recovery) using the modified strain transient dip test is a useful approach towards a better understanding of the viscoelastic nature of polymers. The internal stresses of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polypropylene (PP) were measured successfully using this test on a computer-controlled electro-servo hydraulic tensile testing machine which was designed for rapid step unloading in less than 1 s to avoid memory effects of the polymers. A power-law relationship can be used to describe the variation of the internal stress components with strain. Actual yield strains occurred at smaller values (less than 2%) than those obtained from a conventional stressstrain diagram (which for PVC and PP exceed 3.5% and 7%, respectively). This observation indicated that plastic yielding occurred much earlier and yield strains from conventional stress-strain diagrams may be overestimates. For very ductile material (PP) the activation volumes were comparable in magnitude to that obtained conventionally; whilst for less ductile material (PVC), the activation volume was four times higher. One of the main advantages of stress partitioning is for the detailed definition of the extrapolated yield point which otherwise will be missed out in a conventional plot of applied stress and strain.
KeywordsYield Point Polypropylene Applied Stress Memory Effect Activation Volume
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