Synthesis and characterization of tungsten disulphide films grown by pulsed-laser deposition
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The synthesis and characterization of tungsten disulphide (WS2) films grown on 440C stainless steel substrates using the 248 nm line from a KrF excimer laser are reported. Film properties could be adjusted by controlling substrate temperature and by laser or thermal anneals. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, glancing angle XRD, Raman spectroscopy and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate film chemistry, crystallinity and morphology. Films grown at room temperature were amorphous, near stoichiometric, and had a multiplicity of chemical states. Local order and bonding were improved most dramatically through post-deposition laser anneals. Crystallite size could be increased by raising the substrate temperature during deposition and, to a lesser degree, by post-deposition thermal anneals. Local disorder was observed within the larger crystallites compared to those that were laser annealed. Crystallinity was induced in amorphous films by mechanical rubbing at room temperature under conditions where frictional heating was negligible. The degree of control over film properties provided by PLD demonstrates its value for growing/designing tribological coatings.
KeywordsRaman Spectroscopy Substrate Temperature Thermal Anneal Film Property Stainless Steel Substrate
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