Advertisement

Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 30, Issue 3, pp 655–660 | Cite as

Craze initiation during the environmental stress cracking of polymers

  • J. C. Arnold
Papers

Abstract

The environmental stress cracking behaviour of polycarbonate in ethanol was studied with the aim of critically evaluating craze initiation criteria. A combination of constant strain-rate tensile tests and creep tests were conducted in air and ethanol. The onset of crazing was determined by the use of departure points, which were shown to correlate well with the formation of optically visible crazes. Samples with different states of physical ageing and hence different relaxational behaviour were used to test out various initiation criteria. It was found that crazing occurred when the slower α relaxations had accumulated a certain amount of strain, in this case, 0.1%, and that a criterion based on critical inelastic strain was the most appropriate. Post-immersion tests showed that the development of craze precursors occurs independently of the environment.

Keywords

Polymer Tensile Test Environmental Stress Polycarbonate Material Processing 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    P. I. Vincent and S. Raha, Polymer 13 (1972) 283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. G. Wyzgoski and C. H. M. Jaques, Polm. Eng. Sci. 17 (1977) 854.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Y. W. Mai, J. Mater. Sci. 21 (1986) 904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    D. H. Isaac, J. Li and J. C. Arnold, ibid. 29 (1994) 3095.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    G. Menges and H. Schmidt, Kunstoffe 57 (1967) 885.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    G. Menges and R. Riess, Plastics Polym. 42 (1974) 119.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. C. Arnold, Polym. Eng. Sci. 34 (1994) 665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    D. C. Wright, Br. Polym. J. 10 (1978) 60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    O. S. Bruller, Polym. Eng. Sci. 18 (1978) 42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    D. C. Wright and K. V. Gotham, ibid. 3 (1983) 135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    L. C. E. Struik, “Physical Aging of Amorphous Polymers and Other Materials” (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1978).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    G. D. Dean, B. E. Read and G. D. Small, Plast. Rubber. Process. Appl. 9 (1988) 173.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    S. Wellinghoff and E. Baer, J. Macromol. Sci. B. 11 (1975) 367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. C. Arnold
    • 1
  1. 1.Polymers and Composites Centre, Department of Materials EngineeringUniversity College of SwanseaSingleton ParkUK

Personalised recommendations