The solubility and mode of incorporation of CaO in CaTiO3 were studied by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis and equilibrium electrical conductivity measurements. The presence of Ca4Ti3O10 in samples containing > 0.3 mol% excess CaO was confirmed by direct microscopic examination. Measurements of the equilibrium electrical conductivity showed no detectable shift in the conductivity profile for CaO-excess CaTiO3, thus setting an upper limit of 100 p.p.m. for the solubility of CaO in CaTiO3. The excess CaO is incorporated into CaTiO3 by formation of Ruddlesden-Popper type planar faults, which are layers of CaO coherently intergrown with CaTiO3. Ordering of these planar faults leads to the formation of the stable compound Ca4Ti3O10.
KeywordsPolymer Electron Microscopy Transmission Electron Microscopy Electrical Conductivity Microscopic Examination
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