Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 29, Issue 23, pp 6123–6130 | Cite as

Development of porous zirconia spheres by polymerization-induced colloid aggregation — effect of polymerization rate

  • M. J. Annen
  • R. Kizhappali
  • P. W. Carr
  • A. McCormick


Polymerization-induced colloid aggregation is used to synthesize spheres of narrow size distribution which are porous aggregates of ZrO2 colloids. Variation of the reaction pH has been investigated to determine the optimum rate of polymerization of the urea-formaldehyde resin. At the optimum rate, a colloid packing structure is formed where a balance of high porosity and high strength of the aggregates is achieved. This optimum coincides with the maximum yield of the ∼5 μm sintered (polymer-free) particles. Particles synthesized at pH values below the optimum are mechanically weak; some are hollow spheres. Variation of the pore structure, and thus colloid packing structure, is elucidated by nitrogen adsorption and apparent density measurements. Differences on either side of the optimum pH are related to the efficiency of polymer-bridge formation between colloids.


Porosity Zirconia Pore Structure Maximum Yield Density Measurement 
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Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. J. Annen
    • 1
  • R. Kizhappali
    • 1
  • P. W. Carr
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. McCormick
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical Engineering and Material ScienceUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry and Institute for Advanced Studies in Bioprocess TechnologyUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

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