Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 31, Issue 14, pp 3847–3852 | Cite as

Austenitic grain size evolution and continuous cooling transformation diagrams in vanadium and titanium microalloyed steels

  • F. Peñalba
  • C. Garcia De Andres
  • M. Carsi
  • F. Zapirain


The evolution of the austenitic grain size in medium carbon steels microalloyed with vanadium and titanium was studied as a function of reheating temperature, heating rate, and titanium content. High resolution dilatometric techniques were used to determine the continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams for two different austenitization temperatures. The microstructure and hardness were determined for different cooling rates. The results revealed a significant effect of titanium concentration on the austenitic grain growth control. The smallest grain size was found in the steel with a Ti concentration = 0.019 wt%. Low heating rates produced smaller grain sizes than high heating rates although an abnormal grain growth took place. In these steels, at temperatures above 1050 °C the influence of the reheating temperature on their hardness for cooling rates around 2 °C · s−1 was negligible. The higher reheating temperatures caused a slight increase in their hardenability. Finally, it was found that the greater the titanium content, the greater the hardness of these steels, but only when the titanium percentages were higher than 0.020 wt%.


Titanium Vanadium Cool Rate Carbon Steel Titanium Content 
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Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Peñalba
    • 1
  • C. Garcia De Andres
    • 1
    • 2
  • M. Carsi
    • 1
    • 2
  • F. Zapirain
    • 1
  1. 1.INASMETSan SebastianSpain
  2. 2.CENIM (CSIC)MadridSpain

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