Comparison of beginning and ending microstructures in metal shaped charges as a means to explore mechanisms for plastic deformation at high rates
- 188 Downloads
Optical metallography and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations were made of a variety of forged or sputtered copper, molybdenum, and tantalum shaped charge components. The beginning shaped charge liner grain sizes and sub-structures were compared with those observed in residual (ending), recovered and corresponding jet fragments and slugs. The wide range of microstructures and evolutionary features of observed microstructures can be characterized by low-energy dislocation structure (LEDS) principles which are altered because the shaped charge deformation corresponds to hot working, and dynamic recovery and recrystallization play a prominent role. There is a prominent relationship between the starting liner grain size, Do, and the ratio Do/Ds, where Ds is the ending (slug or jet), steady-state grain size. As a consequence of this relationship, it appears that the volumetric stored energy, which depends upon the grain size and dislocation density (or degree of deformation), is the critical issue in controlling shaped charge jet stability.
KeywordsTransmission Electron Microscopy Recrystallization Molybdenum Liner Dislocation Density
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.W. P. Walters and J. A. Zukas' “Fundamentals of shaped charges” (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1989).Google Scholar
- 2.M. L. Duffy and S. K. Golaski, “Effect of liner grain size on shaped charge jet performance and characteristics”, Technical Report BRL-TR-2800, U.S. Army Ballistic Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, April, 1987.Google Scholar
- 6.F. Jamet, “Investigation of shaped charge jets using flash X-ray diffraction”, Eighth Symposium on Ballistics, Orlando, FL, October, 1984.Google Scholar
- 7.F. Jamet and R. Charon, “A flash X-ray diffraction system for shaped charge jets analysis”, Report (0211/86) Franco-German Research Institute, Saint-Louis, France, May, 1986.Google Scholar
- 8.L. Zernow and L. Lowry, in “Shock-wave and high-strain-rate phenomena in materials”, edited by M. A. Meyers, L. E. Murr, and K. P. Staudhammer (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1992) Ch. 46.Google Scholar
- 9.D. Kuhlmann-Wilsdorf, Phys. State Sol. (a) 104 (1989) 1.Google Scholar
- 10.D. Kuhlmann-Wilsdorf, Materials Sci. Engr. A113 (1989) 1.Google Scholar
- 13.D. Merz, Battelle-Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNC), private communication, 1993; sputtered liners utilized in this research programme were processed by D. Merz.Google Scholar