Hexachloro-1,3-butadiene (HCBD) is more nephrotoxic to female than male rats. Metabolism of HCBD involves conjugation with glutathione followed by formation of the cysteine conjugate S-(pentachloro-1,3-butadienyl) cysteine (PCBD-CYS) and then the mercapturic acid N-acetyl-S-pentachloro-1,3-butadienyl-cysteine (PCBD-NAC). PCBD-NAC is also more nephrotoxic to female rats than male rats. The deacetylation of [14C]-PCBD-NAC to PCBD-CYS and the binding of radiolabelled metabolites to protein has been studied using renal cytosol preparations from male and female rats in vitro, since a sex-related difference in these reactions could explain the difference in nephrotoxicity found in vivo. PCBD-NAC was rapidly metabolised by renal cytosol. The rate of metabolism was similar with either male or female renal cytosol, and the major metabolite identified was PCBD-CYS. N-Acetylation of PCBD-CYS to PCBD-NAC was not detected in the presence of either male or female renal cytosol. Covalent binding of radioactivity from [14C]-PCBD-NAC to cytosolic protein could be detected after 5 min incubation, and although the extent of binding was similar for both male and female cytosol at early time periods, after 60 min incubation more binding was found in the presence of male cytosol. Covalent binding was largely prevented by aminooxyacetic acid, an inhibitor of cysteine conjugate β-lyase, suggesting a role for this enzyme in the activation of HCBD. These results indicate that the sex differences in the nephrotoxicity of HCBD and PCBD-NAC in the rat are not attributable to differences in the rate of deacetylation of PCBD-NAC to give the proximate nephrotoxin PCBD-CYS.
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This work was supported by a fellowship from the European Science Foundation granted to I. S. P.
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Pratt, I.S., Lock, E.A. Deacetylation and further metabolism of the mercapturic acid of hexachloro-1,3-butadiene by rat kidney cytosol in vitro. Arch Toxicol 62, 341–345 (1988). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00293620
- Mercapturate deacetylation
- Cysteine conjugate β-lyase