Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

High susceptibility for diploidy in ovulated oocytes from XO mice


Adult female mice of the “sensitive” NMRI/Han strain ovulate diploid oocytes after gonadotropin treatment. Other mouse strains are “non-sensitive” with respect to the ovulation of such diploid oocytes. In this study we combined the impaired ovarian situation in the XO karyotype with the trait “diploidy”, which is determined genetically, by mating Ta/O (Ta=Tabby) females of C3Hx101 background to males of the NMRI/Han strain. The adult female F1 hybrids were stimulated to ovulation by gonadotropins and identified by their karyotype (XX or XO). The cytogenetic analysis of ovulated oocytes revealed a low level of diploidy in the XX littermates (1.0%), but a very high level in females with the XO karyotype (24.6%). All of the XO females ovulated at least one diploid oocyte. We suggest that it is the XO status which drastically impairs meiosis I in our “gonadotropin-sensitive” F1 females due to (1) alterations of the developmental program within the oocyte, (2) a disturbed communication between oocyte and follicle, (3) a preferential maturation and ovulation of “follicles at risk”, or (4) an exceptional recruitment of many such follicles, by, e.g., a premature responsiveness to gonadotropins in our XO females. An interdependence of several such mechanisms is possible.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Bartels I, jenderny J, Hansmann I (1984) Control of meiosis by somatic cells in mice: inheritance of the meiosis I error ‘diploidy’ and nondisjunction in sensitive NMRI/Han oocytes ovulated from chimaeras. Cell Differ 15:189–194

  2. Beermann F, Hansmann I (1985) The influence of androgens and an aromatase inhibitor on oocyte maturation and meiosis. Acta Endocrinol [Suppl] (Copenh) 267:93–94

  3. Beermann F, Hansmann I (1986) Follicular maturation, luteinization, and first meiotic division in oocytes after inhibiting mitochondrial function in mice with chloramphenicol. Mutat Res (in press)

  4. de Boer P, van der Hoeven FA (1980) The use of translocation-derived “marker-bivalents” for studying the origin of meiotic instability in female mice. Cytogenet Cell Genet 26:49–58

  5. Brook JD (1983) X-chromosome segregation, maternal age and aneuploidy in the XO mouse. Genet Res 41:85–95

  6. Brook JD, Gosden RG, Chandley AC (1984) Maternal ageing and aneuploid embryos — evidence from the mouse that biological and not chronological age is the important influence. Hum Genet 66:41–45

  7. Burgoyne PS, Baker TG (1981) Oocyte depletion in XO mice and their XX sibs from 12 to 200 days post-partum. J Reprod Fertil 61:207–212

  8. Burgoyne PS, Baker TG (1985) Perinatal oocyte loss in XO mice and its implications for the aetiology of gonadal dysgenesis in XO women. J Reprod Fertil 75:633–645

  9. Chandley AC (1982) The origin of aneuploidy. In: Bonné-Tamir B (ed) Human genetics, part B: Medical aspects. Liss, New York, pp 337–347

  10. Deckers JFM, van der Kroon PHW (1981) Some characteristics of the XO mouse (Mus musculus L.). I. Vitality: growth and metabolism. Genetica 55:179–185

  11. Eppig JJ, Downs SM (1984) Chemical signals that regulate mammalian oocyte maturation. Biol Reprod 30:1–11

  12. Epstein CJ (1983) The X chromosome in development. In: Sandberg AA (ed.) Cytogenetics of the mammalian X chromosome, part A. Liss, New York, pp 51–65

  13. Faddy MJ, Gosden RG, Edwards RG (1983) Ovarian follicle dynamics in mice: a comparative study of three inbred strains and and F1 hybrid. J Endocrinol 96:22–23

  14. Gosden RG (1973) Chromosome anomalies of pre-implantation mouse embryos in relation to maternal age. J Reprod Fertil 35: 351–354

  15. Hansmann I (1983) Factors and mechanisms involved in nondisjunction and X-chromosome loss. In: Sandberg AA (ed) Cytogenetics of the mammalian X chromosome, part A. Liss, New York, pp 131–170

  16. Hansmann I, Jenderny J (1983) The genetis basis of nondisjunction: increased incidence of hyperploidy in oocytes from F1 hybrid mice. Hum Genet 65:56–60

  17. Hansmann I, Jenderny J, Probeck HD (1980) Mechanisms of nondisjunction: gonadotropin-induced aneuploidy in oocytes from Phodopus sungorus. Eur J Cell Biol 22:24

  18. Hansmann I, Bartels I, Beermann F, Caspari D, Franke U, Hummler E, Theuring F (1985) Mechanisms of nondisjunction: facts and perspectives. In: Dellarco VL, Voytek PE, Hollaender A (eds) Ancuploidy: etiology and mechanisms. Plenum Press, New York, pp 417–432

  19. Hummler E, Hansmann I (1985) Preferential nondisjunction of specific bivalents in oocytes from Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) following colchicine treatment. Cytogenet Cell Genet 39:161–167

  20. Jenderny J, Düls C, Probeck HD, Richter P, Schulz H, Hansmann I (1980) Genetically determined diploidy in mouse oocytes. Eur J Cell Biol 22:23

  21. Keitges EA, Gartler SM (1985) Dosage compensation at the steroid sulfatase locus in the mouse. Am J Hum Genet 37 [Suppl]:A 232

  22. Keitges EA, Rivest M, Siniscalco M, Gardner SM (1985) X-linkage of steroid sulphatase in the mouse is evidence for a functional Y-linked allcle. Nature 315:226–227

  23. Luthardt FW (1976) Cytogenetic analysis of oocytes and early preimplantation embryos from XO mice. Dev Biol 54:73–81

  24. Lyon MF, Hawker SG (1973) Reproductive lifespan in irradiated and unirradiated XO mice. Genet Res 21:185–194

  25. Martin RH, Dill FJ, Miller JR (1976) Nondisjunction in aging female mice. Cytogenet Cell Genet 17:150–160

  26. Migeon BR, Brown TR, Axelman J, Migeon CJ (1981) Studies on the locus for androgen receptor: localization on the human X chromosome and evidence for homology with the Tfm locus in the mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78:6339–6343

  27. Morris T (1968) The XO and YO chromosome constitutions in the mouse. Genet Res 12:125–137

  28. Nielsen J, Sillesen I (1983) Das Turner Syndrom. Enke, Stuttgart

  29. Reyes FI, Koh KS, Faiman C (1976) Fertility in women with gonadal dysgenesis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 126:668–670

  30. Röhrborn G, Hansmann I (1971) Induced chromosome aberrations in unfertilized oocytes of mice. Hum Genet 13:184–198

  31. Russell LB (1976) Numerical sex-chromosome anomalies in mammals: their spontaneous occurrence and use in mutagenesis studies. In: Hollaender A (ed) Chemical mutagens Principles and methods for their detection, vol 4. Plenum Press, New York London, pp 55–91

  32. Schinzel A (1984) Catalogue of unbalanced chromosome aberrations in man. de Gruyter, Berlin New York

  33. Sugawara S, Mikamo K (1983) Absence of correlation between univalent formation and meiotic nondisjunction in aged female Chinese hamsters. Cytogenet Cell Genet 35:34–40

  34. Tarkowsky A (1966) An air-drying method for chromosome preparations from mouse eggs. Cytogenet Cell Genet 5:394–400

  35. Thung PJ (1961) Ageing changes in the ovary. In: Bourne GH (ed) Structural aspects of ageing. Pitman, London, pp 109–142

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to F. Beermann.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Beermann, F., Franke, U. & Hansmann, I. High susceptibility for diploidy in ovulated oocytes from XO mice. Hum Genet 72, 323–326 (1986). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00290958

Download citation


  • Internal Medicine
  • Metabolic Disease
  • Female Mouse
  • Mouse Strain
  • High Susceptibility