Televised toy commercials were observed during the 1977 (N=44) and 1978 (N=47) Christmas holiday seasons; children shown in the commercials were classified by sex and activity or passivity. In 1977 53 boys and 37 girls were observed; 71 boys and 35 girls were shown in 1978. There were significantly more boys than girls in the 1978 sample of commercials; more commercials contained boys than girls, and there were more boys than girls per commercial. Girls were more likely to appear in a passive role than boys were in the 1977 commercials. There were significantly fewer mixed-sex commericals than expected in 1977, but not in 1978. Percentages of commercials representing 12 toy categories and percentages of boys and girls appearing within each category are described; differences between years are discussed.
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Feldstein, J.H., Feldstein, S. Sex differences on televised toy commercials. Sex Roles 8, 581–587 (1982). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00289892
- Social Psychology
- Passive Role
- Holiday Season
- Christmas Holiday