Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Effects of constitutive heterochromatin and genotype on frequency and distribution of chiasmata in the seven individual rye bivalents


Number and distribution of chiasmata were studied in the single pair of homologous rye chromosomes in 29 chromosomal F1 hybrids between the seven disomic wheat rye addition lines of ‘Chinese Spring’/ ‘Imperial’ and five selected inbred genotypes of cultivated rye by using the differential Giemsa staining technique. The results indicate that the number and position of chiasmata is independent from the amount and position of C-heterochromatin. Genotype had an effect on chiasma number, whereas chiasma distribution within bivalents appeared to be determined by morphological features of chromosomes. Late replicating DNA in constitutive heterochromatin may delay the separation of half bivalents if chiasmata are formed between them and the centromere.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Benavente E, Orellana J (1984) Meiotic pairing of specific chromosome arms in triploid rye. Can J Genet Cytol 26:717–722

  2. Bennett MD, Kaltsikes PJ (1973) The duration of meiosis in a diploid rye, a tetraploid wheat and the hexaploid triticale derived from them. Can J Genet Cytol 15:671–694

  3. Driscoll CJ, Sears ER (1971) Individual addition of the chromosomes of ‘Imperial’ rye to wheat. Agron Abstr 6

  4. Drögemüller EM, Lelley T (1984) Chiasma distribution in rye chromosomes in diploid rye and in wheat/rye addition lines in relation to C-heterochromatin. Theor Appl Genet 67:457–461

  5. Giraldez R, Orellana J (1979) Metaphase I bonds, crossingover frequency and genetic length of specific arms of rye. Chromosoma 72:377–385

  6. Gustafson JP, Evans LE, Josifek K (1976) Identification of chromosomes in Secale montanum and individual Secale montanum additions to ‘Kharkov’ wheat by heterochromatic bands and chromosome morphology. Can J Genet Cytol 18:339–343

  7. John B, Miklos GLG (1979) Functional aspects of heterochromatin and satellite DNA. Int Rev Cytol 58:1–114

  8. Lelley T (1981) Meiotic behaviour of the rye genome in triticale. In: Broertjes C (ed) Induced variability in plant breeding. Int Symp EUCARPIA, PUDOC, Wageningen, pp 101–105

  9. Lelley T, Josifek K, Kaltsikes PJ (1978) Polymorphism in the Giemsa C-banding pattern of rye chromosomes. Can J Genet Cytol 20:307–312

  10. Lima-de-Faria A, Jaworska H (1972) The relationship between chromosome size gradient and the sequence of DNA replication in rye. Hereditas 70:39–58

  11. Loidl J (1979) C-band proximity of chiasmata and absence of terminalization in Allium flavum (Liliaceae). Chromosoma 73:45–51

  12. Merker A (1973) A Giemsa technique for rapid identification of chromosomes in triticale. Hereditas 75:280–282

  13. Merker A (1976) The cytogenetic effect of heterochromatin in hexaploid triticale. Hereditas 83:215–222

  14. Miklos GLG, Nankivell RN (1976) Telomeric satellite DNA functions in regulating recombination. Chromosoma 56:143–167

  15. Müntzing A (1979) Triticale, results and problems. Z Pflanzenzücht (Suppl) 10:1–103

  16. Naranjo T, Lacadena JR (1980) Interaction between wheat chromosomes and rye telomeric heterochromatin on meiotic pairing of chromosome pair 1R of rye in wheat/rye derivatives. Chromosoma 81:249–261

  17. Orellana J, Cermeno MC, Lacadena JR (1984) Meiotic pairing in wheat/rye addition and substitution lines. Can J Genet Cytol 26:25–33

  18. Rees H, Thompson JB (1956) Genotypic control of chromosome behaviour in rye. III. Chiasma frequency in homozygotes and heterozygotes. Heredity 10:409–424

  19. Santos JL, Giraldez R (1978) The effect of C-heterochromatin on chiasma terminalization in Chorthippus biguttulus L. (Acrididae, Orthoptera). Chromosoma 70:59–66

  20. Sybenga J (1983) Rye chromosome nomenclature and homoeology relationships. Workshop report. Z Pflanzenzücht 90:297–304

  21. Thomas J, Kaltsikes JP (1974) A possible effect of heterochromatin on chromosome pairing. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 71:2787–2790

Download references

Author information

Additional information

Supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Bonn

Communicated by T. Tsunewaki

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Attia, T., Lelley, T. Effects of constitutive heterochromatin and genotype on frequency and distribution of chiasmata in the seven individual rye bivalents. Theoret. Appl. Genetics 74, 527–530 (1987).

Download citation

Key words

  • Rye
  • C-heterochromatin
  • Giemsa staining
  • Chiasma frequency
  • Chiasma distribution
  • Chromosome addition lines