Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

The effects of sex, sex-stereotyped descriptions, and institution on evaluations of teachers

Abstract

The author studied the effects of sex of subject and teacher, sex-stereotyped descriptions of teacher, and institutional level on evaluations of teachers. Subjects were 16 male and 16 female students, each evaluating 16 randomly ordered descriptions of teachers on the dimensions of competent—incompetent, warm—cold, hardworking—not hardworking, feminine—masculine, intelligent—not intelligent, a superior teacher—an inferior teacher, and should be rehired—should not be rehired. The teachers were described 1) with male or female names, 2) as teaching nursery school, elementary school, high school, or college, and 3) as possessing traits stereotyped as masculine or feminine, forming a 2×2×4×2 design. The teachers described as masculine were rated much more positively on all variables except warmth. Female teachers were seen as warmer and more feminine than male teachers, and female subjects rated the teachers as more intelligent than male subjects. The difference in ratings of teachers with masculine versus feminine characteristics on the superiority and rehiring measures increased as the institutional level increased from nursery school to elementary school to high school to college.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Broverman, I. K., Broverman, D. M., Clarkson, F., Rosenkrantz, P., & Vogel, S. R. Sex-role stereotypes and clinical judgments of mental health. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1970, 34, 1–7.

  2. Broverman, I. K., Vogel, S. R., Broverman, D. M., Clarkson, F. E., & Rosenkrantz, P. S. Sex role stereotypes: A current appraisal. Journal of Social Issues, 1972, 28, 59–78.

  3. Deaux, K., & Emswiller, T. Explanations of performance on sex-linked tasks: What's skill for the male is luck for the female. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1974, 29, 80–85.

  4. Elmore, P. B., & LaPointe, K. A. Effects of teacher sex and student sex on the evaluation of college instructors. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1974, 66, 386–389.

  5. Elmore, P. B., & LaPointe, K. A. Effects of teacher sex, student sex, and teacher warmth on the evaluation of college instructors. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1975, 67, 368–374.

  6. Feather, N. T., & Simon, J. G. Reactions to male and female success and failure in sex-linked occupations: Impressions of personality, causal attributions, and perceived likelihood of different consequences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1975, 31, 20–31.

  7. Feldman-Summers, S., & Kiesler, S. B. Those who are number two try harder: The effects of sex on attributions of causality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1974, 30, 846–855.

  8. Goldberg, P. A. Are men prejudiced against women? Transaction, April, 1968, 28–30.

  9. Goldberg, P. A. Prejudice toward women: Some personality correlates. International Journal of Group Tensions. 1974, 4, 53–63.

  10. Graham, P. A. Women in academe. Science, 1970, 169, 1284–1290.

  11. Harris, M. B. Sex role stereotypes and teacher evaluations. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1975, 67, 751–756.

  12. Hoffman, L. W. Fear of success in males and females: 1965 and 1971. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1974, 42, 353–358.

  13. Horner, M. S. Toward an understanding of achievement-related conflicts in women. Journal of Social Issues, 1972, 28, 157–175.

  14. Kirk, R. E. Experimental design: Procedures for the behavioral sciences, Belmont, Calif., Brooks/Cole, 1968).

  15. Mischel, H. N. Sex bias in the evaluation of professional achievements. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1974, 66, 157–166.

  16. O'Leary, V. E. Some attitudinal barriers to occupational aspirations in women. Psychological Bulletin, 1974, 81, 809–826.

  17. Pheterson, G. I., Kiesler, S. B., & Goldberg, P. A. Evaluation of the performance of women as a function of their sex, achievement, and personal history. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1971, 19, 114–118.

  18. Radloff, B. Racism and sexism and children's books. Carnegie Quarterly, 1974, 22, #4, 1–8.

  19. Taynor, J., & Deaux, K. When women are more deserving than men: Equity, attribution and perceived sex differences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1973, 28, 360–367.

  20. Taynor, J., & Deaux, K. Equity and perceived sex differences: Role behavior as defined by the task, the mode and the actor. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1975, 32, 381–390.

  21. Weitzman, L. J., Eifler, D., Hokada. E., & Ross, C. Sex role socialization in picture books for preschool children. American Journal of Sociology, 1972, 77, 1125–1149.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Mary B. Harris.

Additional information

Thanks are due to Richard J. Harris for his assistance with the data analysis.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Harris, M.B. The effects of sex, sex-stereotyped descriptions, and institution on evaluations of teachers. Sex Roles 2, 15–21 (1976). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00289294

Download citation

Keywords

  • High School
  • Social Psychology
  • Elementary School
  • Male Subject
  • Female Student