Neural networks are introduced which can be taught by classical or instrumental conditioning to fire in response to arbitrary learned classes of patterns. The filters of output cells are biased by presetting cells whose activation prepares the output cell to “expect” prescribed patterns. For example, an animal that learns to expect food in response to a lever press becomes frustrated if food does not follow the lever press. It's expectations are thereby modified, since frustration is negatively reinforcing. A neural analog with aspects of cerebellar circuitry is noted, including diffuse mossy fiber inputs feeding parallel fibers that end in Purkinje cell dendrites, climbing fiber inputs ending in Purkinje cell dendrites and giving off collaterals to nuclear cells, and inhibitory Purkinje cell outputs to nuclear cells. The networks are motivated by studying mechanisms of pattern discrimination that require no learning. The latter often use two successive layers of inhibition, analogous to horizontal and amacrine cell layers in vertebrate retinas. Cells exhibiting hue (in)constancy, brightness (in)constancy, or movement detection properties are included. These results are relevant to Land's retinex theory and to the existence of opponent- and nonopponent-type cell responses in retinal cells. Some adaptation mechanisms, and arousal mechanisms for crispening the pattern weights that can fire a given cell, are noted.
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Supported in part by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and the Office of Naval Research (N00014-67-A-0204-0051).
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Grossberg, S. Neural expectation: cerebellar and retinal analogs of cells fired by learnable or unlearned pattern classes. Kybernetik 10, 49–57 (1972). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00288784
- Mossy Fiber
- Amacrine Cell
- Lever Press
- Nuclear Cell
- Instrumental Conditioning