Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Gender and ethnicity: Perspectives on dual status

  • 636 Accesses

  • 80 Citations

Abstract

The role of gender and ethnicity as status variables, i.e., as cues to social standing, personal experiences, and cultural expectations, is discussed and the relevant literature is reviewed. The point is made that gender research typically fails to include race/ethnic concerns, and that studies of ethnic groups often ignore gender issues. Consideration is given to the relative scarcity of research which deals with both gender and race/ethnic issues. The impact of each variable, gender and race, is examined separately, and in combination. Issues of racism and sexism are specifically addressed, and the need for research which utilizes an interaction approach is presented. An overview of the articles presented in this special issue is provided. They are discussed in terms of their ability to confirm the importance of the gender/ethnic interaction.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Adams, K. A. (1980). Who has the final word? Sex, race and dominance behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38, 1–8.

  2. Atkinson, D. R., Morton, G., & Wing, S. D. (1979). Counseling American minorities: A cross-sultural perspective. Dubuque, Iowa: William & Brown Co.

  3. Attneave, C. (1982). American Indians and Alaska Native families. In M. McGoldrick, J. K. Pearce, & J. Giordano (Eds.), Ethnicity and family therapy. New York: Guilford Press.

  4. Binion, V. (1990). Psychological androgyny: A Black female perspective. Sex Roles, 22, 487–507.

  5. Burns, A., & Homel, R. (1989). Gender division of tasks by parents and their children. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 13, 113–125.

  6. Burgess, M. E. (1965). Race relations and social change. In J. C. McKinney & E. T. Thompson (Eds.), The South in continuity and change. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 337–358.

  7. Bushman, B. (1984). Perceived symbols of authority and their influence on compliance. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 14, 501–508.

  8. Comas-Diaz, L. (1988). Cross cultural mental health treatment. In L. Comas-Diaz & E. H. H. Griffin (Eds.), Clinical guidelines in cross-cultural mental health. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

  9. Comer, J. P. (1980). White racism: Its root, form, and function. In R. L. Jones (Ed.), Black Psychology. Second Edition (pp. 361–366). New York: Harper & Row.

  10. Coutts, J. S. (1987). Masculinity-femininity of self-concept: Its effect on the achievement behavior of women. Sex Roles, 16, 9–18.

  11. Delany, L. T. (1982). The other bodies in the river. In R. L. Jones (Ed.), Black Psychology. Second Edition (pp. 376–383). New York: Harper & Row.

  12. Dexter, D. R. (1985). Women and the exercise of power in organizations: From ascribed to achieved status. In L. Larwood, A. H. Stromberg, & B. A. Gutek (Eds.), Women and work: An annual review. (Vol. 1, pp. 239–258).

  13. Eagly, A. H., & Chrvala, C. (1986). Sex differences in conformity: Status and gender role interpretations. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 10, 203–220.

  14. Ethier, K., & Deaux, K. (1990). Hispanics in Ivy: Assessing identity and perceived threat. Sex Roles, 22, 427–440.

  15. Fischer, G. J. (1987). Hispanic and majority student attitudes toward forcible date rape as a function of differences in attitudes toward women. Sex Roles, 17, 93–102.

  16. Gergen, K. J., & Gergen, M. M. (1986). Social psychology. Second Edition. New York: Springer Verlag.

  17. Golding, J. M. (1988). Gender differences in depressive symptoms: Statistical considerations. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 12, 61–74.

  18. Grady, K. (1977). The belief in sex differences. Paper presented at the meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association. Boston, April.

  19. Greendorfer, S. L. (1987). Gender bias in theoretical perspectives: The case of female socialization into sport. Psychology of Women Quarterly 11, 327–340.

  20. Grieve, N., Rosenthal, D., & Cavallo, A. (1988). Self-esteem and sex role attitudes: A comparison of Italian- and Anglo-Australian adolescent girls. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 12, 175–189.

  21. Hanson, W. (1980). The urban Indian woman and her family. Social Casework, 61, 476–484.

  22. Hill, R. (1972). The strengths of black families. New York: Emerson-Hall.

  23. Ho, M. K. (1987). Family therapy with ethnic minorities. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

  24. Howard, J. H. (1982). Toward a social psychology of colonialism. In R. L. Jones (Ed.), Black Psychology. Second Edition (pp. 367–375). New York: Harper & Row.

  25. Jenkins, A. H. (1982). The psychology of the Afro-American: A humanistic approach. New York: Pergamon Press.

  26. Kanter, R. M. (1977). Men and women of the corporation. New York: Basic Books.

  27. Ladrine, H. (1985). Race × class stereotypes of women. Sex Roles, 13, 65–75.

  28. La Fromboise, T. (1990). Gender roles among American Indian women. Sex Roles, 22, 455–476.

  29. Larwood, L., Szwjkowski, E., & Rose, R. (1988). Sex and race discrimination resulting from manager-client relationships: Applying the rational bias theory of managerial discrimination. Sex Roles, 18, 9–30.

  30. Lockheed, M. E., & Hall, K. P. (1976). Conceptualizing sex as a status characteristics: Applications to leadership training strategies. Journal of Social Issues, 32, 111–124.

  31. Martin, B. A. (1989). Gender differences in salary expectations in salary expectations when current salary information is provided. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 13, 87–96.

  32. Mellinger, J. C., & Erdwins, C. J. (1985). Personality correlates of age and life roles in adult women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 9, 503–514.

  33. O'Kelly, C. G., & Carney, L. S. (1986). Women and men in society: Cross-cultural perspectives on gender stratification. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

  34. Rathus, S. A. (1988). Understanding child development. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

  35. Reid, P. T. (1988). Racism and sexism: Comparisons and conflicts. In P. A. Katz & D. Taylor (Eds.), Eliminating racism (pp. 203–221). New York: Plenum Press.

  36. Reid, P. T. (1982). Socialization of black female children. In P. Berman & E. Ramey (Eds.), Women: A developmental perspective (pp. 135–155). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.

  37. Rogers, S. C. (1981). Women's place: A critical review of anthropological theory. In S. Cox (Ed.), Female psychology: The emerging self. Second Edition (pp. 42–61). New York: St. Martin's Press.

  38. Romero, G. J., & Garza, R. T. (1986). Attributions for the occupational success/failure of ethnic minority and non-minority women., Sex Roles, 14, 445–452.

  39. Root, M. (1990). Disordered eating in women of color. Sex Roles, 22, 525–536.

  40. Rose, S., & Roades, L. (1987). Feminism and women's friendships. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 11, 243–254.

  41. Russell, D. M. (1988). Language and psychotherapy: The influence of nonstandard English in clinical practice. In L. Comas-Diaz & E. H. H. Griffin (Eds.), Clinical guidelines in cross-cultural mental health. New York: Wiley.

  42. Sagar, H. A., & Schofield, J. W. (1980). Racial and behavioral cues in black and white children's perceptions of ambiguously aggressive acts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 590–598.

  43. Salgado de Snyder, N., Cervantes, R. C., & Padilla, A. M. (1990). Gender and ethnic differences in psychosocial stress and generalized distress among Hispanics. Sex Roles, 22, 441–453.

  44. Scarr, S. (1988). Race and gender as psychological variables: social and ethnical issues. American Psychologist, 43, 56–59.

  45. Senour, M. N. (1981). Psychology of the Chicana In S. Cox (Ed.), Female Psychology: The emerging self. Second Edition (pp. 136–148). New York: St. Martin's Press.

  46. Smith, A., & Stewart, A. J. (1983). Approaches to studying racism and sexism in black women's lives. Journal of Social issues, 29(3), 1–15.

  47. Smith, W. D., Burlew, A. K., Mosley, M. H., & Whitney, W. M. (1978). Minority issues in mental health. Reading MA: Addison-Wesley.

  48. Solomon, B. (1976). Black empowerment. New York: Columbia University Press.

  49. Spindler, G., & Spindler, L. (1971). Male and female adaptations to culture in culture change. In G. Spindler and L. Spindler (Eds.), Man in adaptation: The institutional framework. Chicago: Aldine-Atherton.

  50. Stokes, J. P., & Peyton, J. S. (1986). Attitudinal differences between full-time homemakers and women who work outside the home. Sex Roles, 15, 299–310.

  51. Taylor, R. L. (1976). Psychosocial development among black children and youth: A reexamination. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 46, 4–19.

  52. True, R. H. (1981). The profile of Asian American women. In S. Cox (Ed.), Female Psychology: The emerging self. Second Edition (pp. 124–135). New York: St. Martin's Press.

  53. True, R. H. (1990). Psychotherapeutic issues with Asian American women. Sex Roles, 22, 477–486.

  54. Tumin, M. M. (1969). Comparative perspectives on race relations. Boston: Little, Brown.

  55. Wentworth, D. K., & Anderson, L. R. (1984). Emergent leadership as a function of sex and task type. Sex Roles, 11, 513–524.

  56. Williams, J. E., & Best, D. L. (1982). Measuring sex stereotypes: A thirty nation study. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

  57. Williams, J. H. (1983). Psychology of women: Behavior in a biosocial context. New York: Norton.

  58. Wilson, M., Tolson, T. F. J., Kiernan, M., & Hinton, I. D. (1990). Flexibility and sharing on childcare duties in nontraditional Black families. Sex Roles, 22, 409–425.

  59. Witt, S. H. (1981). The two worlds of Native women. In S. Cox (Ed.), Female Psychology: The emerging self. Second Edition (pp. 149–155). New York: St. Martin's Press.

  60. Wyatt, G., & Lyons-Row, S. (1990). Factors affecting African American women's sexual satisfaction. Sex Roles, 22, 509–524.

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Reid, P.T., Comas-Diaz, L. Gender and ethnicity: Perspectives on dual status. Sex Roles 22, 397–408 (1990). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00288160

Download citation

Keywords

  • Ethnic Group
  • Social Psychology
  • Personal Experience
  • Relevant Literature
  • Gender Issue