Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Sex-role prescriptions and attitudes of physical educators

  • 31 Accesses

Conclusion

The perception of sex-role prescriptions and attitudes of physical educators seem to be related. The results suggest that sensitivity to the changing role of women in society and to the constraints of traditional sex-role definitions should be considered for their potential impact on female students. While this study has focused on attitudes toward females, future analyses of teaching behaviors, classroom situation construction, and curricular objectives in relation to the sex-role prescriptions of our society could provide the basis for maximizing the development of the physical potential of both females and males.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Babbie, E. R. Survey research methods,. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1973.

  2. Bain, L. Descriptions of the hidden curriculum in secondary physical education. Research Quarterly, 1976, 47,(2), 154–159.

  3. Bem, S. L. Probing the promise of androgyny. In A. G. Kaplan & J. P. Bean (Eds.), Beyond sex-role stereotypes: Readings toward a psychology of androgyny,. Boston: Little, Brown, 1976. pp. 48–62.

  4. Bem, S. L. On the utility of alternative procedures for assessing psychological androgyny. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1977, 45,(2), 196–205.

  5. Bem, S. L., & Watson, C. Scoring packet: Bem Sex Role Inventory,. Unpublished manual, 1976. (Available from Dr. Bem, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.)

  6. Broverman, I. K., Vogel, S. R., Broverman, D., Clarkson, F. E., & Rosenkrantz, P. S. Sex role stereotypes: A current appraisal. Journal of Social Issues, 1972, 28,(2), 59–78.

  7. Duquin, M. E. Institutional sanction for girls' sport programs. In D. Landers (Ed.), Psychology of sport and motor behavior II, (College Park, PA: Penn State Health, Physical Education and Recreation Series, No. 10). 1975.

  8. Duquin, M. E. Differential sex role socialization toward amplitude appropriation. Research Quarterly, 1977, 48, 144–153.

  9. Frazier, N., & Sadker, M. Sexism in school and society,. New York: Harper & Row, 1973.

  10. Gerber, E. W., Felshin, J., Berlin, P., & Wyrick, W. The American woman in sport,. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1974.

  11. Helmreich, R., & Spence, J. Sex roles and achievement,. Paper presented at the meeting of the North American Society for Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity, Austin, Tex., 1976.

  12. Lever, J., & Warner, E. S. Sex-role socialization and social structure: The place of complexity in children's games,. Paper presented of the annual meeting of the Pacific Sociological Association, Victoria, British Columbia, April 19, 1975.

  13. Miller, D. C. Handbook of research design and social measurement,. New York: McKay, 1970. pp. 76–83.

  14. Montemayor, R. Children's performance in a game and their attraction to it as a function of sex-typed labels. Child Development, 1974, 45, 152–156.

  15. Oglesby, C. A. Jocks and jockarinas: Will you really need a program to tell the difference?, Paper presented at the 84th annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C., 1976.

  16. Oglesby, C. A. (Ed.) Women and sport: From myth to reality,. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1978.

  17. Parsons, T. The American family: Its relations to personality and to the social structure. In T. Parsons & R. F. Bales (Eds.), Family, socialization and interaction process,. Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press, 1955.

  18. Rao, C., Radhakrishna, M., Sujut, K., & Matthai, A. (Eds.), Formulae and Tables for Statistical Work,. 1966. India: Statistical Publishing Society, p. 83.

  19. Rebecca, M., Hefner, R., & Oleshansky, B. A model of sex-role transcendence. Journal of Social Issues, 1976, 32,(3), 197–206.

  20. Rosenthal, R., & Jacobson, L. Pygmalion in the classroom,. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1968.

  21. Snyder, E., & Spreitzer, E. The female athlete: An analysis of objective and subjective role conflict,. Paper presented at the meeting of the North American Society for Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity. College Park, PA: Penn State, 1975.

  22. Spence, J. T., Helmreich, R., & Stapp, J. A short version of the Attitudes Toward Women Scale (AWS). Bulletin of Psychonomic Sociology, 1973, 2,(4), 219–220.

  23. Spence, J. T., Helmreich, R., & Stapp, J. Ratings of self and peers on sex role attributes and their relation to self-esteem and conceptions of masculinity and femininity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1975, 32,(1), 29–39.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Mary J. Hoferek.

Additional information

Appreciation is expressed to Dr. Muriel R. Sloan and Dr. Jane Allyn Piliavin for their many contributions to this study. This research was submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Ph.D. degree at the University of Wisconsin — Madison.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Hoferek, M.J. Sex-role prescriptions and attitudes of physical educators. Sex Roles 8, 83–98 (1982). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00287676

Download citation

Keywords

  • Social Psychology
  • Female Student
  • Physical Educator
  • Future Analysis
  • Classroom Situation