Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

High pressure phase relations of primitive high-alumina basalts from Medicine Lake volcano, northern California

Abstract

Anhydrous phase relations were determined at 1 atm and 10 to 15 kbar for primitive high-alumina basalts (79–35g and 82–72f) from Giant Crater at Medicine Lake volcano. These compositions are multiply saturated with olivine+augite+plagioclase+spinel+/-orthopyroxene near the liquidus at about 11 kbar. Experiments on mixtures of sample 79–35g with orthopyroxene and olivine determined the location of the multiple saturation boundaries where liquid coexists with the assemblage olivine+augite+orthopyroxene+plagioclase at 10 kbar and olivine+augite+orthopyroxene+spinel at 15 kbar. The mix experiments showed that primitive Medicine Lake high alumina basalts (HABs) are close in composition to liquids in equilibrium with a mantle lherzolite source containing olivine+augite+ orthopyroxene+spinel+plagioclase at 11 kbar. Orthopyroxene observed as a near liquidus phase in an 11 kbar experiment on sample 82–72f supports this conclusion. The most primitive HABs from Medicine Lake are low in K2O (0.07 wt.%), high in MgO (>10 wt.%) and Ni (231 ppm), and have light-rare earth element depletions and large ion lithophile element enrichments. A model for the origin of these near-primary high-alumina basalts is that they are partial melts of a MORB-like mantle lherzolite source that has been enriched by a fluid component derived from the subducted slab. The HAB magma segregated from its mantle residue just below the base of the crust near the crust-mantle boundary.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Akella J, Kennedy GC (1971) Melting of gold, silver and copper: proposal for a new high pressure calibration scale. J Geophys Res 76:4969–4977

  2. Albee AL, Ray L (1970) Correction factors for electron microprobe microanalysis of silicates, oxides, carbonates, phosphates and sulfates. Anal Chem 42:1408–1414

  3. Anders E, Grevesse N (1989) Abundances of the elements: meteoritic and solar. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 53:197–214

  4. Anderson CA (1941) Volcanoes of the Medicine Lake highland, California. Uniy Calif Publ Bull Dep Geol Sci 25:347–422

  5. Bacon CR (1990) Calc-alkaline, shoshonitic, and primitive tholeiitic lavas from monogenetic volcanocs near Crater Lake, Oregon. J Petrol 31:135–166

  6. Baker DR, Eggler DH (1987) Compositions of anhydrous and hydrous melts coexisting with plagioclase, augite, and olivine or low-Ca pyroxene from 1 atm to 8 kbar: application to the Aleutian volcanic center of Atka. Am Mincral 72:12–28

  7. Baker MB (1988) Evolution of lavas at Mt. Shasta volcano, N. California: an experimental and petrologic study. Ph.D. thesis, M.I.T. USA

  8. Baker MB, Grove TL (1990) Origin of high-MgO basaltic andesites at Mt. Shasta: an experimental study (abstract). Eos Trans Am Geophys Union 71:1714

  9. Baker MB, Grove TL, Kinzler RJ, Donnelly-Nolan JM, Wandless GA (1991) Origin of compositional zonation (high alumina basalt-basaltic andesite) in the Giant Crater lava field, Medicine Lake volcano, northern California. J Geophys Res (in press)

  10. Basaltic Volcanism Study Project (1981) Basaltic Volcanism on the terrestrial planets. Pergamon Press, New York

  11. Bence AE, Albee AL (1968) Empirical correction factors for the electron microanalysis of silicates and oxides. J Geol 76:382–403

  12. Biggar GM (1972) Diopside, lithium metasilicate, and the 1968 temperature scale. Mineral Mag 38:768–770

  13. Boyd FR, England JL (1960) Apparatus for phase equilibrium studies at pressures up to 50 kbars and temperatures up to 1750° C. J Geophys Res 65:741–748

  14. Brandon AD (1989) Constraints on magma genesis behind the Neogene Cascade arc: evidence from major and trace element variation of high alumina and tholeiitic volcanoes of the Bear Creek area. J Geophys Res 94:7775–7798

  15. Brophy JG (1989) Can high-alumina arc basalt be derived from low-alumina arc basalt? Evidence from Kanaga Island, Aleutian Arc, Alaska. Geology 17:333–336

  16. Brophy JG, Marsh BD (1986) On the origin of high-alumina arc basalt and the mechanics of melt extraction. J Petrol 27:763–789

  17. Bryan WB, Finger LW, Chaycs F (1969). Estimating proportions in petrographic mixing equations by least squares approximation. Science 163:926–927

  18. Bryan WB, Thompson G, Ludden JN (1981) Compositional variation in Normal MORB from 22°–25° N; Mid-Atlantic Ridge and Kane Fracture Zone. J Geophys Res 86:11815–11836

  19. Crawford AJ, Falloon TJ, Eggins S (1987) The origin of island arc high-alumina basalts. Contrib Mineral Petrol 97:417–430

  20. Davidson JP (1987) Crustal contamination vs. subduction zone enrichment: examples from the lesser Antilles and implications for mantle source compositions of island arc volcanic rocks. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 51:2185–2198

  21. Donnelly-Nolan JM (1988) A magmatic model of Medicine Lake volcano, California. J Geophys Res 93:4412–4420

  22. Donnelly-Nolan JM, Champion DE, Miller CD, Grove TL, Trimble DA (1990) Post-11,000-year volcanism at Medicine Lake volcano, Cascade range, northern California, J Geophys Res 95:19693–19704

  23. Donnelly-Nolan JM, Champion DE, Grove TL, Baker MB, Taggart JE, Bruggman PE (1991) The Giant Crater lava field: geology and geochemistry of a compositionally zoned tholeiitic to calc-alkaline basaltic eruption at Medicine Lake volcano, California, and implications for the origin of arc basalt. J Geophys Res (in press)

  24. Elthon D (1990) The petrogenesis of primary mid-ocean ridge basalts. Aquatic Sciences 2:27–53

  25. Ewart A (1982) The mineralogy and petrology of Tertiary-Recent orogenic volcanic rocks with special reference to the andesitic-basaltic compositional range. In: Andesite Thorpe RS (ed), Wiley, New York, pp 22–95

  26. Falloon TJ, Green DH (1987) Anhydrous partial melting of MORB pyrolite and other peridotite compositions at 10 kbar: implications for the origin of primitive MORB glasses. Mineral Petrol 37:181–219

  27. Fujii T, Scarfe CM (1985) Compositions of liquids coexisting with spinel lherzolite at 10 kbar and the genesis of MORBs. Contrib Mineral Petrol 90:18–28

  28. Gerlach DC, Grove TL (1982) Petrology of Medicine Lake Highland volcanics: characterization of end-members of magma mixing. Contrib Mineral Petrol 80:147–150

  29. Gorshkov GS (1970) Volcanism and the upper mantle. Plenum Press, New York

  30. Grove TL (1981) Use of Fe/Pt alloys to eliminate the iron loss problem in 1-atm gas mixing experiments: theoretical and practical considerations. Contrib Mincral Petrol 78:298–304

  31. Grove TL, Baker MB (1984) Phase equilibrium controls on tholeiitic versus calc-alkaline differentiation trends. J Geophys Res 89:3252–3274

  32. Grove TL, Juster TC (1989) Experimental investigations of low-Ca pyroxene stability and olivine-pyroxene-liquid euqilibria at 1-atm in natural basaltic and andesitic liquids. Contrib Mineral Petrol 103:287–305

  33. Grove TL, Gerlach DC, Sando TW, Baker MB (1982) Origin of calc-alkaline series lavas at Medicine Lake volcano by fractionation, assimilation and mixing: corrections and clarifications. Contrib Mineral Petrol 82:407–408

  34. Grove TL, Kinzler RJ, Baker MB, Donnelly-Nolan JM, Lesher CE (1988) Assimilation of granitic crust by basaltic magma at Burnt Lava flow Medicine Lake volcano, northern California. Contrib Mineral Petrol 99:320–343

  35. Gust DA, Perfit MR (1987) Phase relations of a high-Mg basalt from the Aleutian Island arc: implications for primary island arc basalts and high-Al basalts. Contrib Mineral Petrol 97:7–18

  36. Hart SR, Davis KE (1978) Nickel partitioning between olivine and silicate melt. Earth Planet Sci Lett 40:203–219

  37. Hart WK, Aronson JL, Mertzman SA (1984) Areal distribution and age of low-K-high-alumina olivine tholeiite magmatism in the northwestern Great Basin. Geol Soc Am Bull 95:186–195 Suppl Data 84-3

  38. Hickey RL, Gerlach DC, Frey FA (1982) Geochemical variations in volcanic rocks from central-south Chile (33–42° S). In: Andean magmatism: chemical and isotopic contstraints Harmon RS, Barreiro BA (eds), Shiva Publishing, Nantwich, UK, pp 72–95

  39. Johannes W, Bell PM, Mao HK, Boettcher AL, Chipman DW, Hays JF, Newton RS, Siefert F (1971) An interlaboratory comparison of piston-cylinder pressure calibration using the albite breakdown reaction. Contrib Mineral Petrol 32:23–38

  40. Johnson KTM, Kinzler RJ (1989) Partitioning of REE, Ti, Zr, Hf and Nb between clinopyroxene and basaltic liquid: an ion microprobe study (abstract). Eos Trans Am Geophys Union 70(43):1388

  41. Johnston AD (1986) Anhydrous P-T phase relations of near-primary high-alumina basalt from the South Sandwich Islands. Contrib Mineral Petrol 92:368–382

  42. Kay RW (1980) Volcanic arc magmas: implications of a melting-mixing model for element recycling in the crust-upper mantle system. J Geol 88:497–522

  43. Kinzler RJ, Grove TL, Recca SI (1990) An experimental study on the effect of temperature and melt composition on the partitioning of nickel between olivine and silicate melt. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 54:1255–1265

  44. Kuno H (1960) High-alumina basalt. J Petrol 1:121–145

  45. Kuno H (1968) Origin of andesite and its bearing on the island arc structure. Bull Volcanol 32:141–174

  46. Kushiro I (1972) Effect of water on the composition of magmas formed at high pressures. J Petrol 13:311–334

  47. Kushiro I, Yoder HS Jr (1966) Anorthite-forsterite and anorthiteenstatite reactions and their bearing on the basalt-eclogite transformation. J Petrol 7:337–362

  48. Leeman WP, Smith DR, Hildreth W, Palacz Z, Rogers N (1990) Compositional diversity of late Cenozoic basalts in a transect across the southern Washington Cascades: implications for subduction zone magmatism. J Geophys Res 90:19561–19582

  49. Lindsley DH (1983) Pyroxene thermometry. Am Min 68:477–493

  50. Lindsley DH, Anderson DJ (1983) A two-pyroxene thermometer. J Geophys Res 88: Suppl A887-A906

  51. Mahood GA, Baker DR (1986) Experimental constraints on depths of fractionation of mildly alkalic basalts and associated felsic rocks: Pantelleria, Strait of Silicy. Contrib Mineral Petrol 93:251–264

  52. Mysen BO, Kushiro I, Nicholls IA, Ringwood AE (1974) A possible mantle origin for andesite magmas: discussion and replies. Earth Planet Sci Lett 21:221–229

  53. Nicholls IA, Ringwood AE (1973) Effect of water on olivine stability in tholeiites and production of SiO2-saturated magmas in the island-arc environment. J Geol 81:285–300

  54. Nye CJ, Reid MR (1986) Geochemistry of primary and least fractionated lavas from Okmok volcano, central Aleutians: implications for arc magma genesis. J Geophys Res 91:271–287

  55. Perfit MR, Gust DA, Bence AE, Arculus RJ, Taylor SR (1980) Chemical characteristics of island arc basalts: implications for mantle sources. Chem Geology 30:227–256

  56. Powers HA (1932) The lavas of the Modoc Lava-Bed Quadrangle, California. Am Min 17:253–294

  57. Presnall DC, Dixon SA, Dixon JR, O'Donnell TH, Brenner NL, Schrock RL, Dycus DW (1978) Liquidus phase relations on the join diopside-forsterite-anorthite from 1 atm to 20 kbar: their bearing on the generation and crystallization of basaltic magma. Contrib Mineral Petrol 66:203–220

  58. Sisson TW (1991) Field, geochemical and experimental studies of some aluminous arc magmas. Ph.D. thesis, M.I.T., USA

  59. Stolper E (1980) Phase diagram for mid-ocean ridge basalts: preliminary results and implications for petrogenesis. Contrib Mineral Petrol 74:13–27

  60. Sun C-O, Williams RJ, Sun S-S (1974) Distribution coefficients of Eu and Sr for plagioclase-liquid and clinopyroxene-liquid equilibria in oceanic ridge basalt: an experimental study. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 38:1415–1433

  61. Takahashi E (1986) Melting of a dry peridotite KLB-1 up to 20 GPa: implications on the origin of peridotite upper mantle. J Geophys Res 91:9367–9382

  62. Tatsumi Y, Sakuyama M, Fukuyama H, Kushiro I (1983) Generation of arc basalt magmas and thermal structure of the mantle wedge in subduction zones. J Geophys Res 88:5815–5825

  63. Thompson RN (1974) Primary basalts and magma genesis. I. Skye, northwest Scotland. Contrib Mineral Petrol 45:317–341

  64. Thompson RN (1975) Primary basalts and magma genesis. II. Snake River plain, Idaho, USA. Contrib Mineral Petrol 52:213–232

  65. Tilley CE (1950) Some aspects of magmatic evolution. Quat J Geol Soc London 106:37–50

  66. Tormey DR, Grove TL, Bryan WB (1987) Experimental petrology of normal MORB near the Kane Fracture Zone: 22°–25° N, mid-Atlantic ridge. Contrib Mineral Petrol 96:121–139

  67. Ulmer P (1986) Basische and ultrabasische Gesteine des Adamello. Ph D thesis, ETH, Zurich

  68. Waters AC (1962) Basalt magma types and their tectonic associations: pacific northwest of the United States. In: The crust of the Pacific Basin. American Geophysical Union Monograph 6: pp 158–170

  69. Westerveld J (1962) Quaternary volcanism on Sumatra. Bull Geol Soc Amer 63:561–594

  70. Whitford DJ, Nicholls IA, Taylor SR (1979) Spatial variations in the geochemistry of Quaternary lavas across the Sunda arc in Java and Bali. Contrib Mineral Petrol 70:341–356

  71. Yoder HS, Tilley CE (1957) Basalt magmas. Carnegie Inst Washington Yearb 56:156–161

  72. Yoder HS Jr, Tilley CE (1962) Origin of basalt magmas: an experimental study of natural and synthetic rock systems. J Petrol 3:342–532

  73. Zucca JJ, Fuis GS, Milkereit B, Mooney WD, Catchings RD (1986) Crustal structure of northeastern California. J Geophys Res 91:7359–7382

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Timothy L. Grove.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Bartels, K.S., Kinzler, R.J. & Grove, T.L. High pressure phase relations of primitive high-alumina basalts from Medicine Lake volcano, northern California. Contr. Mineral. and Petrol. 108, 253–270 (1991). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00285935

Download citation

Keywords

  • Olivine
  • High Pressure Phase
  • Fluid Component
  • Medicine Lake
  • Anhydrous Phase