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Bicentric evaluation of a teaching and treatment programme for Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients: improvement of metabolic control and other measures of diabetes care for up to 22 months

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In two hospitals an identical diabetes teaching and treatment programme (in-patient, Monday to Friday, group teaching) was set up. Seventy-eight consecutive, conventionally treated Type 1 diabetic patients (duration of diabetes 10±6 years), referred during a certain period, were reinvestigated after 1 year, and again (for assessment of metabolic control only) 22 months after the teaching and treatment programme. Initially, mean glycosylated haemoglobin was 2.6%, after one year 1.0%, and after 22 months 1.5% above the upper limit of the normal range (p<0.001). Hospital admissions were reduced from a mean of 10 to a median of 1 day per patient per year (p<0.001). The long-term quality of diabetes care achieved by the diabetes teaching and treatment programme was unrelated to intelligence quotient, diabetes duration, or diabetes-related knowledge. Patients with normal levels of glycosylated haemoglobin on follow-up (33% of all patients) had particularly good compliance rates, and significantly lower initial values of glycosylated haemoglobin than patients with glycosylated haemoglobin levels ⩾10%. The data indicate that the diabetes teaching and treatment programme resulted in a substantial long-term improvement of metabolic control and a striking reduction of hospital admissions. The study substantiates the feasibility of applying this teaching and treatment programme on a large scale to other hospitals, so as to improve the quality of diabetes care and decrease health care costs.


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Mühlhauser, I., Jörgens, V., Berger, M. et al. Bicentric evaluation of a teaching and treatment programme for Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients: improvement of metabolic control and other measures of diabetes care for up to 22 months. Diabetologia 25, 470–476 (1983). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00284453

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Key words

  • Diabetes education
  • Type 1 diabetes
  • severe hypoglycaemia
  • diabetes care