Air-borne pollutants have acidified 90,000 km of running water and at least 18,000 of Sweden's 90,000 lakes. In 1977 a national liming program to mitigate the effects of acidification in surface waters started with governmental support. Governmental subsidies usually amount to 85 % of the total liming cost but can in rare cases be extended to 100 % when waters of great national interest are threatened. The main liming agent is limestone of the size 0 to 0,2 mm. In lakes lime is spread by pontoon boats, helicopters and other vehicles. In running waters dosers and diversion wells are used. By 1985, the national liming program has been able to lime approximately 3,000 lakes and 100 streams.
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Lessmark, O., Thörnelöf, E. Liming in Sweden. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 31, 809–815 (1986). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00284227
- Surface Water
- Rare Case
- National Interest
- Governmental Support