Three years of hourly sequential precipitation data from central Long Island, New York were analyzed to determine the concentrations of major anions and cations and their relationships to each other and to meteorological conditions. Findings with respect to sulfate, nitrogen in nitrate plus nitrite, nitrogen in ammonium, chloride and sodium ions and selected ratios are reported here.
Concentrations of each of the first three species were highly correlated with concentrations of the others and with hydrogen ions. Little correlation was found between these species and either sodium or chloride ions but the latter two were highly correlated with each other.
Concentrations of the first three species are highest in summer and lowest in winter. High concentrations were also found with cold front and squall line precipitation and with rain showers and thundershowers. Concentrations of these species are high with both low and high precipitation rates. Concentrations are highest with west and northwest winds due to the presence of major source regions in those directions. They are high with both low and high temperatures but lower in the moderate temperature range. Concentrations are high with low (3.0 to 3.9) and with high (6.0 to 6.9) pH but less at intermediate levels. Thus, concentrations of these species in precipitation are determined by complex chemical and meteorological interactions and relationships.
Chloride and sodium were found to be largely of marine origin. Highest concentrations occur in the fall and with hurricanes, strong winds, and onshore wind directions. Concentrations decrease with increasing precipitation rate. At low concentrations, the chloride/sodium ratio is above the seawater ratio and excess chloride is present. At high concentrations the ratio is below the seawater ratio and a chloride deficit exists.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Anderson, D. E. and Landsberg, H. E.: 1979, Environ. Sci. and Tech. 13, 992.
Boyce, S. D. and Butcher, S. S.: 1976, Water, Air, and Soil Poll. 6, 375.
Cogbill, C. V. and Likens, G. E.: 1974, Water Resources Research 10, 1133.
Dovland, H., Joranger, E., and Semb, A.: 1976, in F. H. Braekke (ed.), Impact of Acid Precipitation on Forest and Freshwater Ecosystems in Norway, Summary report on the research results from the phase I (1972–1975) of the SNSF project, Oslo, pp. 15–35.
Eriksson, E.: 1959, Tellus 11, 375.
Eriksson, E.: 1960, Tellus 12, 63.
Friend, J. P.: 1973, in S. I. Rasool (ed.), Chemistry of the Lower Atmosphere, Plenum Press, New York.
Galloway, J. N., Likens, G. E., and Edgerton, E. S.: 1976a, Science 194, 722.
Galloway, J. N., Likens, G. E., and Edgerton, E. S.: 1976b, Water, Air, and Soil Poll. 6, 423.
Gambell, A. W. and Fisher, D. W.: 1964, J. Geophys. Res. 69, 4203.
Gorham, E.: 1958, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. SER. B241, 147.
Granat, L.: 1972, Tellus 24, 550.
Granat, L.: 1978, Atmos. Environ. 12, 413.
Hornbeck, J. W., Likens, G. E., and Eaton, J. S.: 1977, Water, Air, and Soil Poll. 7, 355.
Jacobson, J. S., Heller, L. I., and van Leuken, P.: 1976, Water, Air, and Soil Poll. 6, 339.
Junge, C. E.: 1958, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union 39, 241.
Junge, C. E. and Gustafson, P. E.: 1957, Tellus 9, 164.
Junge, C. E. and Werby, R. T.: 1958, J. Meteor. 15, 417.
Lau, N.-C. and Charlson, R. J.: 1977, Atmos. Environ. 11, 475.
Likens, G. E.: 1976, Chem. Eng. News Nov. 22, 29.
Likens, G. E. and Bormann, F. H.: 1974, Science 184, 1176.
Likens, G. E., Bormann, F. H., Eaton, J. S., Pierce, R. S., and Johnson, N. M.: 1976, Water, Air, and Soil Poll. 6, 435.
Liljestrand, H. M. and Morgan, J. J.: 1978, Environ. Sci. and Tech. 12, 1271.
Lodge, J. P., Jr., Hill, K. C., Pate, J. B., Lorange, E., Basbergill, W., Lazrus, A. L., and Swanson, G. S.: 1968, Chemistry of United States Precipitation, Final Report on the National Precipitation Sampling Network, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, 66 pp.
Marsh, A. R. W.: 1978, Atmos. Environ. 12, 401.
Martin, A. and Barber, F. R.: 1978, Atmos. Environ. 12, 1481.
Munn, R. E. and Rodhe, H.: 1971, Tellus 23, 1.
Nie, N. H., Hull, C. H., Jenkins, J. G., Steinbrenner, K., and Bent, D. H.: 1975, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 675 pp.
Oden, S.: 1976, Water, Air, and Soil Poll. 6, 137.
Raynor, G. S.: 1979, ‘Meteorological and Chemical Relationships from Sequential Precipitation Samples’, in W. Licht, A. J. Engel, and S. M. Slater (eds.), Control of Emissions from Stationary Combustion Sources: Pollutant Detection and Behavior in the Atmosphere, AIChE Symposium Series No. 188, Vol. 75, Amer. Inst. of Chem. Eng., New York, pp. 269–273.
Raynor, G. S. and Hayes, J. V.: 1978, Experimental Data from Analysis of Sequential Precipitation Samples at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Report BNL 50826, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, 44 pp.
Raynor, G. S. and Hayes, J. V.: 1979, Analytical Summary of Experimental Data from two years of Hourly Sequential Precipitation Samples at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Report 51058, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, 91 pp.
Raynor, G. S. and Hayes, J. V.: 1980a, Sulfate, Nitrate Plus Nitrite and Ammonium Ion Concentrations in Central Long Island, New York Precipitation in Relation to Meteorological Variables, Report 28261, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York.
Raynor, G. S. and Hayes, J. V.: 1980b, Chloride and Sodium Ion Concentrations in Central Long Island, New York Precipitation in Relation to Meteorological Variables, Report 28333, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York.
Raynor, G. S. and Hayes, J. V.: 1981, Water, Air, and Soil Poll. 15, 229.
Raynor, G. S. and McNeil, J. P.: 1978, The Brookhaven Automatic Sequential Precipitation Sampler, Report BNL 50818, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, 30 pp.
Raynor, G. S. and McNeil, J. P.: 1979, Atmos. Environ. 13, 149.
Shaw, R. W.: 1979, Environ. Sci. and Tech. 13, 406.
Scrub, A.: 1976, Water, Air, and Soil Poll. 6, 231.
Stevenson, C. M.: 1968, Quart. J. Royal Meteor. Soc. 94, 56.
Summers, P. W. and Hitchon, B.: 1973, J. Air Poll. Control. Assn. 23, 194.
Tabatabai, M. A. and Laflen, J. M.: 1976, Water, Air, and Soil Poll. 6, 361.
Vermeulen, A. J.: 1978, Environ. Sci. and Tech. 12, 1016.
Whitehead, H. C. and Feth, J. H.: 1964, J. Geophys. Res. 69, 3319.
Yaalon, D. H.: 1964, Tellus 16, 200.
Ziegler, E. N.: 1979, ‘Precipitation Composition in Northeastern United States’, in J. R. Pfalllin and E. N. Ziegler (eds.), Advances in Environmental Science and Engineering, Gordon and Breach Sci. Publ. London, pp. 160–183.
About this article
Cite this article
Raynor, G.S., Hayes, J.V. Concentrations of some ionic species in Central Long Island, New York precipitation in relation to meteorological variables. Water Air Soil Pollut 17, 309–335 (1982). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00283161
- Meteorological Variable
- High Precipitation
- Precipitation Rate
- Cold Front