Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Changes in the somatostatin, substance P and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide content of the gastrointestinal tract following streptozotocin-induced diabetes in the rat

Summary

Rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes of 10 weeks' duration showed significant changes in the total content of somatostatin, substance P and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the stomach and small intestine compared with control animals. An increase (p<0.05) in the concentration and total content of gastric somatostatin and a decrease (p<0.05) in the concentration and content of gastric substance P were seen in the streptozotocin-treated rats. The increase in the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) content (54%, p<0.05) and the decrease in the substance P content (35%, p<0.05) of the gut may contribute to the impaired intestinal motility observed in animals with experimentally produced diabetes. Both the diabetogenic effect of streptozotocin and the changes in regulatory peptide concentrations were prevented by injection of nicotinamide before streptozotocin suggesting that the changes did not arise from a non-specific toxic effect of streptozotocin upon gastrointestinal neurones and/or endocrine cells.

References

  1. 1.

    Howland WJ, Drinkard RU (1963) Acute diabetic gastric atony: gastroparesis diabeticorum. JAMA 185: 214–216

  2. 2.

    Hosking DJ, Moody F, Stewart IM, Atkinson M (1975) Vagal impairment of gastric secretion in diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Br Med J 2: 588–590

  3. 3.

    Battle WM, Snape WJ Jr., Alavi A, Cohen S, Braunstein S (1980) Colonic dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. Gastroenterology 79: 1217–1221

  4. 4.

    Katz LA, Spiro HM (1966) Gastrointestinal manifestations of diabetes. N Engl J Med 275: 1350–1361

  5. 5.

    Schmidt RE, Nelson JS, Johnson EM (1981) Experimental diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Am J Pathol 103: 210–225

  6. 6.

    Lincoln J, Crockett M, Haven AJ, Burnstock G (1984) Rat bladder in the early stages of streptozotocin-induced diabetes: adrenergic and cholinergic innervation. Diabetologia 26: 81–87

  7. 7.

    Rao VS, Vadlamudi V, McNeil JH (1983) Effect of alloxan-and streptozotocin-induced diabetes on isolated rat heart responsiveness to carbachol. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 225: 410–415

  8. 8.

    Tomlinson DR, Gillon KRW, Smith MG (1982) Axonal transport of noradrenaline and noradrenergic transmission in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Diabetologia 22: 199–204

  9. 9.

    Lincoln J, Bokor JT, Crowe R, Griffith SG, Haven AJ, Burnstock G (1984) Myenteric plexus in streptozotocin-treated rats: neurochemical and histochemical evidence for diabetic neuropathy in the gut. Gastroenterology 86: 654–661

  10. 10.

    Gershon MD, Erde M (1981) The nervous system of the gut. Gastroenterology 80: 1571–1594

  11. 11.

    Schultzberg M, Hökfelt T, Nilsson G, Terenius L, Rehfeld JF, Brown M, Elde R, Goldstein M, Said S (1980) Distribution of peptide- and catecholamine-containing neurons in the gastrointestinal tract of rat and guinea pig: immunohistochemical studies with antisera to substance P, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, enkephalins, somatostatin, gastrin/cholecystokinin, neurotensin and dopamine β-hydroxylase. Neuroscience 5: 689–744

  12. 12.

    Ferri G-L, Adrian TE, Ghatei MA, O'Shaughnessy DJ, Probert L, Lee YC, Buchan AM, Polak JM, Bloom SR (1983) Tissue localization and relative distribution of regulatory peptides in separated layers from the human bowel. Gastroenterology 84: 777–786

  13. 13.

    Junod A, Lambert AE, Stauffacher W, Renold AE (1969) Diabetogenic action of streptozotocin: relationship of dose to metabolic response. J Clin Invest 48: 2129–2139

  14. 14.

    McIntosh C, Arnold R, Bothe E, Becker H, Köbberling J, Creutzfeldt W (1978) Gastrointestinal somatostatin: extraction and radioimmunoassay in different species. Gut 19: 655–663

  15. 15.

    Conlon JM, Sheehan L (1983) Conversion of substance P to C-terminal fragments in human plasma. Regul Pept 7: 335–345

  16. 16.

    Agoston DV, Ballmann M, Conlon JM, Dowe GHC, Whittaker VP (1985) The isolation of neuropeptide-containing vesicles from the guinea pig ileum. J Neurochem (in press)

  17. 17.

    Patel YC, Cameron DP, Bankier A, Malaisse-Lagae F, Ravazzola M, Studer P, Orci L (1978) Changes in somatostatin concentration in pancreas and other tissues of streptozotocin diabetic rats. Endocrinology 103: 917–923

  18. 18.

    Kishimoto S, Kunita S, Kambara A, Okamoto K, Shimizu S, Yamamoto M, Koh H, Sano K, Kajiyama G, Miyoshi A, Yanaihara N (1983) VIPergic innervation in the gastrointestinal tract of diabetic rats. Hiroshima J Med Sci 32: 469–478

  19. 19.

    Nelson JS, Lacy PE, Hirshberg GE (1976) Megacolon and autonomic neuropathy in diabetic rats. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 35: 335

  20. 20.

    Scott LD, Ellis TM (1980) Small intestinal transit and myoelectric activity in diabetic rats. In: Christensen J (ed) Gastrointestinal motility. Raven Press, New York, pp 395–399

  21. 21.

    Nilsson G, Larsson L-I, Håkanson R, Brodin E, Pernow B, Sundler F (1975) Localization of substance P-like immunoreactivity in mouse gut. Histochemistry 43: 97–99

  22. 22.

    Furness JB, Costa M (1975) Projections of intestinal neurons showing immunoreactivity for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide are consistent with these neurons being enteric inhibitory neurons. Neurosci Lett 15: 199–204

  23. 23.

    Holzer P, Lembeck F (1980) Neurally mediated contraction of ileal longitudinal muscle by substance P. Neurosci Lett 17: 101–105

  24. 24.

    Fahrenkrug J, Haglund U, Jodal M, Lundgren O, Olbe L, Schaffalitzky de Muckadell OB (1978) Nervous release of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the gastrointestinal tract of cats: possible physiological implications. J Physiol (Lond) 248: 291–305

  25. 25.

    Crowe R, Lincoln J, Blacklay PF, Pryor JP, Lumley JSP, Burnstock G (1983) Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-like immunoreactive nerves in diabetic penis. A comparison between streptozotocin-treated rats and man. Diabetes 32: 1075–1077

  26. 26.

    Gu J, Polak JM, Lazarides M, Morgan R, Pryor JP, Marangos PJ, Blank MA, Bloom SR (1984) Decrease of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the penises from impotent men. Lancet 2: 315–317

  27. 27.

    Krejs GJ (1984) Effect of somatostatin and atropine infusion on intestinal transit time and fructose absorption in the perfused human jejunum. Diabetes 33: 548–551

  28. 28.

    Csáky TZ, Fischer E (1981) Intestinal sugar transport in experimental diabetes. Diabetes 30: 568–574

  29. 29.

    Jamal A, Kellett GL (1983) Regulation of mucosal phosphofructokinase in the small intestine of the streptozotocin-diabetic rat. Diabetologia 25: 355–359

  30. 30.

    Schedl HP, Wilson HD (1971) Effects of diabetes on intestinal growth in the rat. J Exp Zool 176: 487–496

  31. 31.

    Nakayama H, Iju M, Nakagawa S (1974) Influence of diet on intestinal cell DNA synthesis in the diabetic rat. Diabetes 23: 793–795

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Ballmann, M., Conlon, J.M. Changes in the somatostatin, substance P and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide content of the gastrointestinal tract following streptozotocin-induced diabetes in the rat. Diabetologia 28, 355–358 (1985). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00283143

Download citation

Key words

  • Somatostatin
  • substance P
  • vasoactive intestinal polypeptide
  • streptozotocin-diabetes
  • nicotinamide
  • rat
  • gastrointestinal tract