Molecular and General Genetics MGG

, Volume 230, Issue 3, pp 401–412 | Cite as

Organisation and functions of the actV A region of the actinorhodin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces coelicolor

  • José L. Caballero
  • Eduardo Martinez
  • Francisco Malpartida
  • David A. Hopwood


Sequence analysis of the actVA region of the actinorhodin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces coelicolor revealed a succession of six open reading frames (ORFs), all running in the same direction and extending over 5.32 kb. The protein product of actVA-ORF1 strongly resembles that of another gene, elsewhere in the act cluster (actII-ORF2), which codes for a trans-membrane protein previously implicated in actinorhodin export from the mycelium. This suggests that the two gene products may co-operate in actinorhodin export, perhaps being sufficient for self-protection of the organism against suicide. At least four of the other five ORFs are implicated in the control of the C-6 and C-8 ring-hydroxylation reactions, lacking in actVA mutants, that occur at middle to late stages in the actinorhodin biosynthetic pathway. This conclusion was reached by genetic mapping of actVA mutants to actVA-ORF3 and-ORF5 (and perhaps -ORF4), and by the finding of strong resemblances between the protein products of actVA-ORF2 and -ORF6 and the products of genes of the oxytetracycline or tetracenomycin gene clusters that have been implicated in ring-hydroxylation reactions in the biosynthesis of these other aromatic polyketide antibiotics.

Key words

Antibiotic biosynthesis Antibiotic resistance Hydroxylases Streptomyces 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • José L. Caballero
    • 1
  • Eduardo Martinez
    • 2
  • Francisco Malpartida
    • 2
  • David A. Hopwood
    • 1
  1. 1.John Innes InstituteJohn Innes CentreNorwichUK
  2. 2.Centro Nacional de BiotecnologiaMadridSpain

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