A reproducible method for regeneration of plants from primary leaf tissue of 27 varieties of soybean (Glycine max), encompassing maturity groups 00 to VIII, has been developed. Progeny from seeds recovered from regenerated plants appear normal. Best regeneration was from leaf explants (2.1–4.0 mm) obtained from 5 day old seedlings. While 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) was demonstrated to be essential for regeneration, addition of benzyladenine (BA) was found to enhance regeneration. Of the 6 other auxins tested, only picloram induced any regenerative response. Using identical volumes of medium and other conditions, regeneration could be obtained in 95 × 25 mm glass culture tubes but not in 60 × 15 mm Petri dishes.
The regeneration of soybeans from primary leaf tissue was shown to be greatly enhanced by pyroglutamic acid (5-oxoproline). Stimulatory effects were attained if pyroglutamic acid was added directly to the medium or if it was formed in situ as a result of chemical transformation of glutamine during autoclaving. The “active” component produced by autoclaving glutamine was not a conjugate of glutamine with inorganic salts or another organic component of the medium. Filter-sterilized glutamine was shown to be inhibitory to regeneration.
Murashige and Skoog (MS) and Schenk and Hildebrandt (SH) basal media were compared to Gamborg B5 medium. All contained 0.1 mg/l 2,4,5-T, 40 mg/l adenine sulfate and 10 mM pyroglutamic acid. No regeneration occurred when MS medium was used. Growth and appearance of callus growing on SH and B5 media with the additives were similar. The incidence of regeneration among cultures growing on SH medium was only one third compared to cultures grown on B5 medium.
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Wright, M.S., Ward, D.V., Hinchee, M.A. et al. Regeneration of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) from cultured primary leaf tissue. Plant Cell Reports 6, 83–89 (1987). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00276659
- Inorganic Salt
- Leaf Explants
- Maturity Group