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Abnormalities of human sex chromosomes

VI. Monozygotic twins with the complement 48,XXXY

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Summary

The cytogenetic study of a pair of identical, mentally-retarded twins with the chromosome complement 48,XXXY is reported, along with extensive clinical and endocrinological studies of one twin.

The genetic and clinical features of 30 reported 48,XXXY individuals were summarized and compared to those of 47,XXY and 49,XXXXY individuals. For 47,XXY the mean maternal age clearly is increased; for 48,XXXY it appears definitely but only slightly increased; and for 49,XXXXY it may not be increased at all. Developmental defects, similar in type, appear to be progressively more marked when an additional 1, 2, or 3 X chromosomes are added to the normal male chromosome complement. 47,XXY individuals may be either normal in intelligence or mentally retarded, whereas severe mental retardation has been present in all those with the complements 48,XXXY and 49,XXXXY.

The interesting suggestion of increased twining associated with poly-X male complements is noted.

Zusammenfassung

Die cytogenetische Untersuchung eines Paares eineiiger, geistig zurückgebliebener Zwillinge mit dem Chromosomenstatus 48,XXXY wird dargestellt; bei dem einen Paarling konnten außerdem ausgedehnte klinische und endokrinologische Studien durchgeführt werden.

Außerdem wurden die genetischen und klinischen Merkmale der 30 bekannten Fälle mit 48,XXXY dargestellt und mit denen von Patienten mit 47,XXY und mit 49,XXXXY verglichen. Bei Fällen mit 47,XXY ist das mütterliche Alter deutlich erhöht; bei 48,XXXY ist es eindeutig, aber nur leicht erhöht; es sieht so aus, als ob es für 49,XXXXY überhaupt nicht erhöht wäre. Defekte der Entwicklung, die dem Typ nach ähnlich sind, scheinen dem Ausmaß nach desto mehr ausgeprägt zu sein, je mehr X-Chromosomen zusätzlich bei dem normalen männlichen Chromosomensatz vorhanden sind. 47,XXY Individuen können entweder schwachsinnig sein oder eine normale Intelligenz haben; dagegen zeigten alle Fälle mit 48,XXXY und 49,XXXXY einen schweren Schwachsinn.

Es wird die interessante Frage aufgeworfen, ob die Zwillingshäufigkeit bei Poly X-Männern erhöht ist.

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Research supported by grants HD 04134, HL 09011, RR-47, AM-11105, and TIAM 53950-11 from the National Institutes of Health.

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Simpson, J.L., Morillo-Cucci, G., Horwith, M. et al. Abnormalities of human sex chromosomes. Hum Genet 21, 301–308 (1974). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00273367

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Keywords

  • Developmental Defect
  • Chromosome Complement
  • Severe Mental Retardation
  • Male Chromosome
  • Endocrinological Study