Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Somatic embryogenesis from immature embryos of redbud (Cercis canadensis)


Somatic embryos developed directly from 96 and 110 day post-anthesis Cercis canadensis L. (redbud) zygotic embryos from one of two trees sampled that were explanted onto modified Schenk and Hildebrandt medium amended with either 1, 2, 3 or 5 mg/1 2,4-D in combination with either 7.6 or 12. 6 mM ammonium ion. Although somatic embryogenesis was expressed on most media, the number of explants that produced somatic embryos and the mean number of embryos formed per explant were greatest on media that contained either 2 or 3 mg/1 2,4-D; 12.6 mM ammonium ion inhibited embryogenesis from 96 day post-anthesis explants. Zygotic embryos explanted 117 days after anthesis produced only callus and roots. Somatic embryos that were bottle-shaped or had distinct cotyledons organized roots on germination media, but only one embryo formed a shoot. No additional development occurred. Histological examination of somatic embryos showed that shoot apical meristems were poorly developed.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.



2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid


1-naphthaleneacetic acid




Formalin-propionic acid-ethanol (50%)


  1. Ammirato PV (1987) In: Plant Tissue and Cell Culture (Green CD, Somers DA, Hackett WP, Biesboer DD, eds) AR Liss Inc. pp 57–81.

  2. Dougall DG, Verma DC (1978) In Vitro 14:180–182.

  3. Gharyal PK, Maheshwari SC (1981) Naturwissenschaften 68:379–380.

  4. Halperin W, Wetherell DF (1965) Nature 205:519–520.

  5. Johansen DA (1940) Plant Microtechnique McGraw-Hill.

  6. Kysely W, Myers JR, Lazzeri PA, Collins GB, Jacobsen H-J (1987) Plant Cell Rep. 6:305–308.

  7. Lazzeri PA, Hildebrand DF, Collins GB (1985) Plant Molec. Biol. Rep. 3:160–167.

  8. Lazzeri PA, Hildebrand DF, Collins GB (1987) Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 10:197–208.

  9. Maheswaran G. Williams EG (1984) Ann. Bot. 54:201–211.

  10. Meijer EGM, Brown DCW (1987) Plant Cell Tis. Org. Cult. 10:11–19.

  11. Merkle SA, Wetzstein HY, Sommer HE (1984) Hortscience 22:128–130.

  12. Oelck MM, Schieder O (1983) Z. Pflanzenzuchtg 91:312–321.

  13. Schenk RU, Hildebrandt AC (1972) Can. J. Bot. 50:199–294.

  14. Skolmen RG (1986) In: Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry 1 (Bajaj YPS, ed) Springer-Verlag pp 375–384.

  15. Stuart DA, Strickland SG, Nichol JW (1985). In: Tissue Culture in Forestry and Agriculture (Henke RR, Hughes KW, Constantin MJ, Hollaender A, eds) Plenum Press pp 59–74.

  16. Stuart DA, Strickland SG (1984) Plant Sci. Lett. 34:175–181.

  17. Trigiano RN, Conger BV, Songstad DD (1987) J. Plant Growth Regul. 6:133–146.

  18. Tulecke W, McGranahan G (1985) Plant Science 40:57–63.

  19. Williams EG, Maheswaran G (1986) Ann. Bot. 57:443–462.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Robert N. Trigiano.

Additional information

Communicated by J. Widholm

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Trigiano, R.N., Beaty, R.M. & Graham, E.T. Somatic embryogenesis from immature embryos of redbud (Cercis canadensis). Plant Cell Reports 7, 148–150 (1988).

Download citation


  • Ammonium
  • Somatic Embryo
  • Histological Examination
  • Somatic Embryogenesis
  • Apical Meristem