Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Morphogenetic effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaf explants in vitro


Roots, callus and/or globular structures were produced on primary leaf and distal cotyledon explants of pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. UI 114) cultured on semisolid MS medium with a wide range of 2,4-D concentrations (0.01 to 80 mg/L) with either 0 or 1.0 mg/L kinetin. Explants rooted at lower 2,4-D concentrations than at those favoring globule formation on callus, although roots, callus and globules often developed from the same explant. Isolated opaque green globular structures developed when callus initiated on media with 3 or more mg/L 2,4-D was subcultured in liquid MS + 30 mg/L 2,4-D. These structures multiplied with a fresh weight doubling time of 8–9 days in MS + 30 mg/L 2,4-D. Although this multiplicative behavior and opaque color were reminiscent of embryoids reported for other species, no cotyledons or roots were seen.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.



2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid




Murashige-Skoog medium


  1. Allavena A, Rossetti L (1984) Acta Hort. 131:239–246.

  2. Bevan M, Northcote DH (1979) J Cell Sci 39:339–353.

  3. Beversdorf W, Bingham ET (1977) Crop Sci 17:307–311.

  4. Christianson ML, Warnick DA, Carlson, PS (1983) Science 222:632–634.

  5. Crocomo OJ, Peters JE, Sharp WR (1976b) Turrialba 26:232–236.

  6. Crocomo OJ, Sharp, WR, Peters JE (1976a) Z Pflanzenphys 78:456–460.

  7. Kim S, Song JH, Lee K (1982) Kor J Bot 25:161–168.

  8. Krikorian AD, Kann RP (1981) Ann Bot 47:679–686.

  9. Lippmann B, Lippmann G (1984) Plant Cell Reports 3:215–218.

  10. Martins IS, Sondahl MR (1984) J Pl Physiol 117:97–103.

  11. Mok MC, Mok DWS (1977) Physiol Plant 40:261–264.

  12. Mok MC, Mok DWS, Armstrong DJ, Rabakoarihanta A, Kim S (1980) Genetics 94:675–686.

  13. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) Physiol Plant 15:473–497.

  14. Peters JE, Crocomo OJ, Sharp WR (1976) Turrialba 26:337–341.

  15. Saunders JW, Bingham ET (1975) Am J Bot 62:850–855.

  16. Tonin GS, de Carvalho MTV, Sharp WR, Crocomo OJ (1981) Turrialba 31:245–252.

  17. Walker KA, Yu PC, Sato SJ, Jaworski EG (1978) Am J Bot 65:654–659.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to J. W. Saunders.

Additional information

Cooperative investigations of the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station, East Lansing, Michigan 48824. Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station Journal article No. 11923

Communicated by G. C. Phillips

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Saunders, J.W., Hosfield, G.L. & Levi, A. Morphogenetic effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaf explants in vitro. Plant Cell Reports 6, 46–49 (1987).

Download citation


  • Doubling Time
  • Kinetin
  • Leaf Explants
  • Globular Structure
  • Primary Leaf