Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

A method for quantification of the level of somatic embryogenesis among Norway spruce callus lines

Abstract

A method for quantitative determination of the level of somatic embryogenesis in Norway spruce embryogenic callus is described. Embryogenic callus was dispersed in liquid by agitation and plated in a thin layer of medium containing 0.6% low melting point agarose. The number of embedded somatic embryos per mg of callus ranged from 0.2 to 1.5 among 11 embryogenic callus lines surveyed. Each callus line was derived from an individual immature embryo explant. Further development occurred as somatic embryos grew out of the agarose layer. This method was useful for identifying highly embryogenic callus lines among phenotypically similar lines, and should be useful for quantitatively determining the effect of medium and growth regulator modifications on somatic embryo density and developmental capacity.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Abbreviations

2,4-D:

2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

BAP:

6-benzylaminopurine

IBA:

indole-3-butyric acid

ABA:

abscisic acid

References

  1. Allen GS, Owens JN (1972) The life history of Douglas-fir. Information Canada, Ottawa

  2. von Arnold S, Hakman I (1986) J. Plant Physiol. 122:261–265

  3. von Arnold S, Eriksson, T (1981) Can. J. Bot. 59:870–874

  4. Duncan DR, Williams ME, Zehr BE, Widholm JM (1985) Planta 165:322–332

  5. Gupta PK, Durzan DJ (1986) Bio/Tech 4:643–645

  6. Hakman I, Fowke LC, von Arnold S, Eriksson T (1985) Plant Science 38:53–59

  7. Hakman I, von Arnold S (1985) J. Plant Physiol. 121:149–158

  8. Hodges TK, Kamo KK, Imbrie CW, Becwar MR (1986) BioTech. 4:219–223

  9. Imbrie-Mulligan CW, Hodges TK (1986) Planta 168:395–401

  10. Kamada H, Harada H (1981) Plant and Cell Physiol. 22:1423–1429

  11. Nagmani R, Bonga JM (1985) Can. J. For. Res. 15:1088–1091

  12. Raghavan V (1976) Experimental embryology in vascular plants. Academic Press, NY

  13. Ranch JP, Oglesby L, Zielinski AC (1985) In Vitro 21:653–658

  14. Reisch B, Bingham ET (1980) Plant Sci. Lett. 20:71–77

  15. Shillito RD, Paszkowski J, Potrykus I (1983) Plant Cell Reports 2:244–247

  16. Wann SR, Feirer RP, Johnson MA, Noland TL (1986) TAPPI Research and Development Conference Proceedings, TAPPI Press, Atlanta, GA. pp. 131–135

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to M. R. Becwar.

Additional information

Communicated by J. M. Widholm

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Becwar, M.R., Noland, T.L. & Wann, S.R. A method for quantification of the level of somatic embryogenesis among Norway spruce callus lines. Plant Cell Reports 6, 35–38 (1987). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00269734

Download citation

Keywords

  • Agarose
  • Melting Point
  • Somatic Embryo
  • Growth Regulator
  • Somatic Embryogenesis