Submergence caused similar changes in pH, redox potential, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, and manganese contents of soils as were observed in Part 1.
Rice plants grown on pots at submergence and at field capacity with fertilization assimilated more nitrogen, phosphorus potassium, iron and manganese and as a result, grew better and tillered more than plants grown at field capacity without fertilizers. The grain yield at submergence and at field capacity with fertilizers were better compared to those at field capacity without fertilizers. All these observations lead to a conclusion that the additional application of nutrients in the form of fertilizers at field capacity condition can equate the benefits of submergence.
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Islam, A., Ullah, S.M. Chemistry of submerged soils and growth and yield of rice. Plant Soil 39, 567–579 (1973). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00264174