Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Cyclopiazonic acid disturbs the regulation of cytosolic calcium when repetitive action potentials are evoked in Dionaea traps


Evoking of action potentials (APs) in the trap of Dionaea muscipula Ellis at intervals shorter than 20 s caused a gradual decrease in the amplitude of the APs. At longer intervals the amplitude was constant. The calcium ionophore A23187 (1 μM) caused a considerable decrease of AP amplitude. Pretreatment of a segment of the Dionaea trap with cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), which is a specific inhibitor of the Ca2+-ATPase in the sarcoplasmic seticulum of animal cells and in ER vesicles isolated from plant cells, only slightly affected the amplitude when APs were evoked every 10 min; however, it caused a considerable decrease in the amplitude when the stimulation was repeated every 2 min. Assuming that APs increase the concentration of cytosolic Ca2+ and the amplitude of AP depends on the gradient of Ca2+ across the plasma membrane, the effect of CPA on the AP amplitude indicates that CPA inhibits the sequestration of Ca2+ in Dionaea cells.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.



action potential


free Ca2+ concentration in the cytosol


cyclopiazonic acid




plasma membrane


  1. Brown WH (1916) The mechanism of movement and the duration of the effect of stimulations in the leaves of Dionaea. Amer J Bot 3: 68–90

  2. Busch MB, Sievers A (1993) Membrane traffic from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus is disturbed by an inhibitor of the Ca2+-ATPase in the ER. Protoplasma 177: 23–31

  3. Chanson A (1993) Active transport of proton and calcium in higher plant cells. Plant Physiol Biochem 31: 943–955

  4. Demaurex N, Lew DP, Krause K-H (1992) Cyclopiazonic acid depletes intracellular Ca2+ stores and activates an influx pathway for divalent cations in HL-60 cells. J Biol Chem 267: 2318–2324

  5. Evans DI, Briars S-A, Williams EE (1991) Active calcium transport by plant cell membrane. J Exp Bot 42: 285–303

  6. Gilroy S, Fricker MD, Read ND, Trewavas AJ (1991) Role of calcium in signal transduction in Commelina guard cells. Plant Cell 3: 333–344

  7. Felle HH, Tretyn A, Wagner G (1992) The role of plasma-membrane Ca2+ -ATPase in Ca2+ homeostasis in Sinapis alba root hairs. Planta 188: 306–313

  8. Goeger DE, Riley RT, Dorner JW, Cole RJ (1988) Cyclopiazonic acid inhibition of the Ca2+-transport ATPase in rat skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles. Biochem Pharmacol 37: 978–981

  9. Hodick D, Sievers A (1988) The action potential of Dionaea muscipula Ellis. Planta 174: 8–18

  10. Hsieh W, Pierce WS, Sze H (1991) Calcium-pumping ATPases in vesicles from carrot cells. Stimulation by calmodulin or phosphatidylserine and formation of a 120 kilodalton phosphoenzyme. Plant Physiol 97: 1535–1544

  11. Kikuyama M, Shimada K, Hiramoto Y (1993) Cessation of cytoplasmic streaming follows an increase of cytoplasmic Ca2+ during action potential in Nitella. Protoplasma 174: 142–146

  12. Liß H, Weiler EW (1994) Ion-translocating ATPases in tendrils of Bryonia dioica Jacq. Planta 194: 169–180

  13. Seidler NW, Jona I, Vegh M, Martonosi A (1989) Cyclopiazonic acid is a specific inhibitor of the Ca2+-ATPase of sarcoplasmic reticulum. J Biol Chem 264: 17816–17823

  14. Sibaoka I (1966) Action potentials in plant organs. Symp Soc Exp Biol 20: 49–74

  15. Sievers A, Busch MB (1992) An inhibitor of the Ca2+-ATPases in the sarcoplasmic and endoplasmic reticula inhibits transduction of the gravity stimulus in cress roots. Planta 188: 619–622

  16. Thomson LJ, Hall JL, Williams LE (1994) A study of the effect of inhibitors of the animal sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum-type calcium pumps on the primary Ca2+-ATPases of red beet. Plant Physiol 104: 1295–1300

  17. Trebacz K, Simonis W, Schönknecht G (1994) Cytoplasmic Ca2+, K+, Cl and NO3-activities in the liverwort Conocephalum conicum L. at rest and during action potentials. Plant Physiol 106: 1073–1084

  18. Williamson RE, Ashley CC (1982) Free Ca2+ and cytoplasmic streaming in the alga Chara. Nature 296: 647–650

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Andreas Sievers.

Additional information

This work was supported within the project AGRAVIS by Deutsche Agentur für Raumfahrtangelegenheiten, DARA, Bonn, and Ministerium für Wissenschaft und Forschung, Düsseldorf, to A.S., and by Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung to K.T. We thank Dr. Sandra K. Hillman, University of Glasgow, UK, for correcting the manuscript and Dipl.-Ing. P. Blasczyak for help with the electronics.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Trebacz, K., Busch, M.B., Hejnowicz, Z. et al. Cyclopiazonic acid disturbs the regulation of cytosolic calcium when repetitive action potentials are evoked in Dionaea traps. Planta 198, 623–626 (1996).

Download citation

Key words

  • Action potential
  • Cyclopiazonic acid
  • Cytosolic calcium
  • Dionaea (action potential, calcium)