Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Nocardioform gut actinomycetes of Glomeris hexasticha Brandt (Diplopoda)

  • 32 Accesses

  • 3 Citations


In the gut and fresh faecal matter of Glomeris hexasticha a unique taxonomically hardly identifiable aerobic, Gram-positive nocardioform actinomycete can form sparse populations. This indigenous intestinal microbe is completely absent from or occurs only sporadically in the soil or litter of its host animal's feeding habitat. It has a very complex life cycle. Cultural-morphological and biochemical properties are more or less similar to those of the genus Promicromonospora. It differs from the latter and the members of the closely related genus Oerskovia by several characteristics, including its particular cell-wall chemical composition (diaminobutyric acid and glycine are present) and its resistance against highly specific Promicromonospora and Oerskovia phages. It can be concluded that the gut nocardioforms of the forest litter feeding millipedes represent a taxonomically heterogeneous group, the individual members (species) of which seem well-adapted partners of the individual species of Diplopoda.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Anderson JM, Bignell DE (1980) Bacteria in the food, gut contents and faeces of the litter feeding millipede Glomeris marginata (Villers). Soil Biol Biochem 12:251–254

  2. Barabás G, Szabó G (1965) A comparison of cell-wall composition of Streptomyces griseus strains. Arch Microbiol 50:156–163

  3. Barabás G, Szabó G, Müller F, Hevessy Z (1968) Streptomycin-like compound enzymically released from a streptomycin-non-producing Streptomyces griseus strain. Acta Microbiol Hung 15:97–103

  4. Becker B, Lechevalier MP, Gordon RE, Lechevalier HA (1964) Rapid differentiation between Nocardia and Streptomyces by paper chromatography of whole cell hydrolysates. Appl Microbiol 12:421–423

  5. Cross I (1981) The monosporic actinomycetes. In: Starr MP, Stolp H, Trüper HG, Balows A, Schlegel HG (eds) The prokaryotes. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 2091–2102

  6. Dzingov A, Máriafigeti K, Jáger K, Contreras E, Kondics L, Szabó IM (1982) Studies on the microflora of millipedes (Diplopoda). I. A comparison of actinomycetes isolated from surface structures of the exosceleton and the digestive tract. Pedobiologia 24:1–7

  7. Jáger K, Márialigeti K, Hauck M, Barabás G (1983) Promicromonospora enterophila sp. nov., a new species of monospore actinomycetes. Int J Syst Bacteriol 33:525–531

  8. Kuimova TIT, Yevtushenko LI, Agre NS (1983) The characteristics of Promicromonospora citrea life cycles. Microbiologiya 52:272–277

  9. Lechevalier HA, Lechevalier MP (1981a) Introduction to the order Actinomycetales. In: Starr MP, Stolp H, Trüper HG, Balows A, Schlegel HG (eds) The prokaryotes. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 1915–1922

  10. Lechevalier HA, Lechevalier MP (1981b) Actinomycete genera “in search of a family”. In: Staff MP, Stolp H, Trüper HG, Balows A, Schlegel HG (eds) The prokaryotes. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 2118–2123

  11. Márialigeti K, Contreras E, Barabás G, Heydrich M, Szabó IM (1985) True intestinal actinomycetes of millipedes (Diplopoda). J Invertebr Pathol 45:120–121

  12. Szabó IM, Jáger K, Contreras E, Márialigeti K, Dzingov A, Barabás G, Pobozsny M (1983) Composition and properties of the external and internal microflora of millipedes (Diplopoda) In: Lebrun Ph, André HM, De Medts A, Grégoire-Wibo C, Wauthy G (eds) New trends in soil biology. Dieu-Brichart, Ottignies-Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, pp 197–206

  13. Yevtushenko LI, Pataraya DT, Agre NS, Kalakoutskii LV (1982) Polymorphism of Promicromonospora citrea cells. Mikrobiologiya 51:466–471

Download references

Author information

Additional information

Dedicated to the late Prof. Dr. M.S. Ghilarov

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Chu, T.L., Szabó, I.M. & Szabó, I. Nocardioform gut actinomycetes of Glomeris hexasticha Brandt (Diplopoda). Biol Fert Soils 3, 113–116 (1987).

Download citation

Key words

  • Glomeris hexasticha
  • Litter-feeding millipedes
  • Nocardioform gut actinomycetes
  • Cell wall composition