A minimal medium was used to investigate the triggers regulating the initiation of solvent production and differentiation in Clostridium acetobutylicum P262. The accumulation of acid end-products caused the inhibition of cell division and the initiation of solvent production and cell differentiation. Initiation only occurred with a narrow pH range. Glucose or ammonium limited cultures failed to achieve the necessary threshold of acid end-products and solvent production and differentiation were not initiated. The addition of acid end-products or ammonium to cultures containing suboptimal levels of glucose or nitrogen respectively, enhanced solvent production. Resuspension of cells in media containing the threshold level of acid end-products and residual glucose induced endospore formation. Glucose or ammonium limitation did not induce sporulation and there was a requirement for glucose and ammonium during solventogenesis and endospore formation. Initiation of solvent production and clostridial stage formation were essential for sporulation. The induction of endospore formation in C. acetobutylicum P262 differs from that in the aerobic endospore forming bacteria where sporulation is initiated by nutrient starvation.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Andersch W, Bahl H, Gottschalk G (1982) Acetone-butanol production by Clostridium acetobutylicum in an ammonium-limited chemostat at low pH values. Biotechnol Lett 4:29–32
Bahl H, Andersch W, Braun K, Gottschalk G (1982) Effect of pH and butyrate concentration on the production of acetone and butanol by Clostridium acetobutylicum grown in continuous culture. Eur J Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 14:17–20
Davis R, Stephenson M (1941) Studies on the acetone-butyl alcohol fermentation. I. Nutritional and other factors involved in the preparation of active suspensions of Clostridium acetobutylicum (Weizmann). Biochem J 35:1320–1331
Gottschal JC, Morris JG (1981 a) The induction of acetone and butanol production in cultures of Clostridium acetobutylicum by elevated concentration of acetate and butyrate. FEMS Microbiol Lett 12:385–389
Gottschal JC, Morris JG (1981b) Non-production of acetone and butanol by Clostridium acetobutylicum during glucose- and ammonium-limitation in continuous culture. Biotechnol Lett 3:525–530
Häggström L, Molin N (1980) Calcium alginate immobilized cells of Clostridium acetobutylicum for solvent production. Biotechnol Lett 2:241–246
Herrero AA (1983) End-product inhibition in anerobic fermentations. Trends Biotechnol 1:49–53
Hoeniger JFM, Headley CL (1968) Cytology of spore germination in Clostridium pectinovorum. J Bacteriol 96:1835–1847
Jones DT, van der Westhuizen A, Long S, Allcock ER, Reid SJ, Woods DR (1982) Solvent production and morphological changes in Clostridium acetobutylicum. Appl Environ Microbiol 43:1434–1439
Long S, Jones DT, Woods DR (1983) Sporulation of Clostridium acetobutylicum P262 in a defined medium. Appl Environ Microbiol 45:1389–1393
Martin JR, Petitdemange H, Bavongue J, Gay R (1983) Effect of acetic and butyric acids on solvent production by Clostridium acetobutylicum. Biotechnol Lett 5:89–94
Monot F., Engasser JM (1983) Production of acetone and butanol by batch and continuous culture of Clostridium acetobutylicum under nitrogen limitation. Biotechnol Lett 5:213–218
Monot F, Martin J-R, Petitdemange H, Gay R (1982) Acetone and butanol production by Clostridium acetobutylicum in a synthetic medium. Appl Environ Microbiol 44:1318–1324
Nakhmanovich BM, Shcheblykina NA (1960) Fermentation of calcium salts of acetic and butyric acids by Clostridium acetobutylicum. Mikrobiologiya 29:67–72
O'Brien RW, Morris JG (1971) Oxygen and the growth and metabolism of Clostridium acetobutylicum. J Gen Microbiol 68:307–318
Robson PM, Jones DT (1982) Production of acetone-butanol by industrial fermentation. In: Chaude D, Durand G (eds) Production D'Intermediares Industriels Par Culture Anaerobie. Societe Francaise De Microbiologie, pp 169–213
Smith AG, Ellner PD (1957) Cytological observations on the sporulation process of Clostridium perfringens. J Bacteriol 73:1–7
Spivey MJ (1978) The acetone/butanol/ethanol fermentation. Proc Biochem 13:2–5
Young M, Mandelstam J (1979) Early events during bacterial endospore formation. Adv Microb Physiol 20:102–162
Yu EKC, Saddler, JN (1983) Enhanced acetone-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum grown on D-xylose in the presence of acetic or butyric acid. FEMS Microbiol Lett 18:103–107
About this article
Cite this article
Long, S., Jones, D.T. & Woods, D.R. Initiation of solvent production, clostridial stage and endospore formation in Clostridium acetobutylicum P262. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 20, 256–261 (1984). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00250635
- Cell Division
- Threshold Level
- Minimal Medium