Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Complete oxidation of benzoate and 4-hydroxybenzoate by a new sulfate-reducing bacterium resembling Desulfoarculus

  • 75 Accesses

  • 20 Citations


A new sulfate-reducer “strain SAX” was isolated from an anaerobic marine sediment [Saxild, Denmark]. The isolate was a gram-negative, motile and non-spore-forming rod which sometimes appeared as a curved rod. Strain SAX differed from all described Desulfovibrio-, Desulfobotulus- and Desulfoarculus-species by the ability to degrade aromatic compounds such as benzoate, 4-hydroxybenzoate and phenol completely to CO2. Electron donors used included lactate, pyruvate, malate, fumarate, crotonate and butyrate, while pyruvate was fermented in the absence of an external electron acceptor. Sulfate, thiosulfate or sulfite served as electron acceptors with benzoate as the donor, while nitrate and nitrite did not. The sulfate-reducing bacterium required vitamins and NaCl-concentrations of about 20 g/l. The optimum temperature for growth of strain SAX was 30°C and the optimum pH value was 7.3. The DNA base composition was 62.4 mol% G+C. The strain possessed cytochrome c3, but no desulfoviridin. On the basis of these characteristics and because strain SAX could not be ascribed to any of the existing species therefore assignment as a new species to the genus Desulfoarculus was suggested.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.



Guanine plus Cytosine


  1. Braun M, Stolp H (1985) Degradation of methanol by a sulfatereducing bacterium. Arch Microbiol 142: 77–80

  2. Brysch K, Schneider C, Fuchs G, Widdel F (1987) Lithoautotrophic growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria, and description of Desulfobacterium autotrophicum gen. nov., sp. nov. Arch Microbiol 148: 264–274

  3. Caumette P, Cohen Y, Matheron R (1991) Isolation and characterization of Desulfovibrio halophilus sp. nov., a halophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from Solar Lake (Sinai). Syst Appl Microbiol 14: 33–38

  4. Cord-Ruwisch R, Carcia JL (1985) Isolation and characterization of an anaerobic benzoate-degrading spore-forming sulfatereducing bacterium, Desulfotomaculum sapomandens sp. nov. FEMS Microbiol Lett 29: 325–330

  5. Cypionka H, Pfennig N (1986) Growth yields of Desulfotomaculum orientis with hydrogen in chemostat culture Arch Microbiol 143: 396–399

  6. Folkerts M, Ney U, Kneifel H, Stackebrandt E, Witte EG, Forstel H, Schoberth SM, Sahm H (1989) Desulfovibrio furfuralis sp. nov., a furfural degrading strictly anaerobic bacterium. Syst Appl Microbiol 11: 161–169

  7. Imhoff-Stuckle D, Pfennig N (1983) Isolation and characterization of a nicotinic acid-degrading sulfate-reducing bacterium, Desulfococcus niacini sp. nov. Arch Microbiol 136: 194–198

  8. Marmur J, Doty P (1962) Determination of the base composition of desoxyribonucleic acid from its thermal denaturation temperature. J Mol Biol 5: 109–118

  9. Nanninga HJ, Gottschal JC (1986) Isolation of a sulfate-reducing bacterium growing with methanol. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 38: 125–130

  10. Ollivier B, Cord-Ruwisch R, Hatchikian EC, Garcia JL (1988) Characterization of Desulfovibrio fructosovorans sp. nov. Arch Microbiol 149: 447–450

  11. Pachmayr F (1960) Vorkommen und Bestimmung von Schwefelverbindungen in Mineralwasser. MD thesis, University of München, München, FRG

  12. Pfennig N, Widdel F, Trüper HG (1981) The dissimilatory sulfatereducing bacteria. In: Starr MP, Trüper HG, Stolp H, Balows A, Schlegel HG (eds) The prokaryotes, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 926–940

  13. Postgate JR (1959) A diagnostic reaction of Desulphovibrio desulphuricans. Nature 183: 481–482

  14. Postgate JR (1984) The sulfate-reducing bacteria, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, London

  15. Qatibi AI, Niviere V, Garcia JL (1991) Desulfovibrio alcoholovorans sp. nov., a sulfate-reducing bacterium able to grow on glycerol, 1,2- and 1,3-propanediol. Arch Microbiol 155: 143–148

  16. Stams AJM, Hansen TA, Skyring GW (1985) Utilization of amino acids as energy substrates by two marine Desulfovibrio strains. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 31: 11–15

  17. Widdel F (1980) Anaerober Abbau von Fettsäuren und Benzoesäure durch neu isolierte Arten Sulfat-reduzierender Bakterien. MD thesis, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, FRG

  18. Widdel F, Pfennig N (1981) Studies on dissimilatory sulfatereducing bacteria that decompose fatty acids. I. Isolation of new sulfate-reducing bacteria enriched with acetate from saline environments. Description of Desulfobacter postgatei gen. nov., sp. nov. Arch Microbiol 129: 395–400

  19. Widdel F, Kohring GW, Mayer F (1983) Entides on dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria that decompose fatty acids. II. Characterization of the filamentous gliding Desulfonema limicola gen. nov., sp. nov., and Desulfonema magnum sp. nov. Arch Microbiol 134: 286–294

  20. Widdel F, Pfennig N (1984) Dissimilatory sulfate- or sulfurreducing bacteria. In: Krieg NR, Holt JG (eds) Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology, 9th edn. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 663–679

  21. Widdel F (1988) Microbiology and ecology of sulfate- and sulfurreducing bacteria. In: Zehnder AJB (ed) Biology of anaerobic microorganisms. Wiley, New York, pp 469–585

  22. Widdel F, Bak F (1992) Gram-negative mesophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria. In: Balows A, Trüper HG, Dworkin M, Harder W, Schleifer KH (eds) The prokaryotes, 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, vol IV, chapter 183, pp 3352–3378

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Drzyzga, O., Küver, J. & Blotevogel, K. Complete oxidation of benzoate and 4-hydroxybenzoate by a new sulfate-reducing bacterium resembling Desulfoarculus . Arch. Microbiol. 159, 109–113 (1993). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00250268

Download citation

Key words

  • Sulfate reduction
  • Complete oxidation
  • Benzoate
  • 4-Hydroxybenzoate
  • Phenol
  • Desulfoarculus
  • Species description