Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

The primate globus pallidus: neuronal activity related to direction of movement

Summary

Neurons in the arm areas of the external and internal segments of the globus pallidus (GPe and GPi) and the ventral pallidum (VP) have been examined in a visuomotor step-tracking task. This task, which was similar to that used previously to examine neurons in the arm area of the putamen, dissociated the direction of movement from the pattern of muscle activity associated with the movement. The major finding of the present study is that, as in the putamen, the activity of almost half of the neurons in GPe and GPi was related to the direction of movement. Cells with overall patterns of activity similar to muscle were rare, although many neurons had static and/or dynamic load effects which resembled those seen in muscle. Responses of neurons to load application have also been examined in this paradigm in order to determine the nature of possible somatosensory input. Short-latency “sensory” responses to load application were found in pallidum as previously in putamen, but, by contrast, they occurred somewhat later and included bidirectional responses. Similar proportions of cells in GP and putamen were related to static loads. Some VP neurons appeared to encode information about specific features of the trials, but the majority of responses were nonspecific suggesting relations to more general features of the task.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Alexander GE, DeLong MR, Strick PL (1986) Parallel organization of functionally segregated circuits linking basal ganglia and cortex. Ann Rev Neurosci 9: 357–381

  2. Allum JHJ, Anner-Baratti REC, Hepp-Reymond MC (1983) Activity of neurons in the motor thalamus and globus pallidus during the control of isometric finger force in the monkey. In: Paillard MJ, Schultz W, Wiesendanger M (eds) Neural coding of motor performance. Exp Brain Res Suppl 7 Springer, New York, pp 194–203

  3. Anderson ME, Horak FB (1985) Influence of the globus pallidus on arm movements in monkeys. III. Timing of movement-related information. J Neurophysiol 54: 433–448

  4. Branch MH, Crutcher MD, DeLong MR (1980) Globus pallidus: neuronal responses to arm loading. Soc Neurosci Abstr 6: 272

  5. Cheney PD, Fetz EE (1980) Functional classes of primate corticomotoneuronal cells and their relation to active force. J Neurophysiol 44: 773–791

  6. Conrad B, Wiesendanger M, Matsunami K, Brooks VB (1977) Precentral unit activity related to control of arm movements. Exp Brain Res 29: 85–95

  7. Cowan WM, Powell TPS (1966) Strio-pallidal projection in the monkey. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 29: 426–439

  8. Crutcher MD, DeLong MR (1984a) Single cell studies of the primate putamen. I. Functional organization. Exp Brain Res 53: 233–243

  9. Crutcher MD, DeLong MR (1984b) Single cell studies of the primate putamen. II. Relations to direction of movement and pattern of muscular activity. Exp Brain Res 53: 244–258

  10. DeLong MR (1971) Activity of pallidal neurons during movement. J Neurophysiol 34: 414–427

  11. DeLong MR (1972) Activity of basal ganglia neurons during movement. Brain Res 40(1): 127–135

  12. DeLong MR (1973) Putamen: activity of single units during slow and rapid arm movements. Science 179: 1240–1242

  13. DeLong MR, Strick PL (1974) Relation of basal ganglia, cerebellum, and motor cortex units to ramp and ballistic limb movements. Brain Res 71: 327–335

  14. DeLong MR, Georgopoulos AP (1981) Motor functions of the basal ganglia. In: Brookhart JM, Mountcastle VB, Brooks VB (eds) Handbook of physiology. The nervous system. American Physiological Society, Bethesda Maryland, pp 1017–1061

  15. DeLong MR, Georgopoulos AP, Crutcher MD (1983) Corticobasal ganglia relations and coding of motor performance. Exp Brain Res Suppl 7: 30–40

  16. DeLong MR, Alexander GE, Georgopoulos AP, Crutcher MD, Mitchell SJ, Richardson RT (1984) Role of basal ganglia in limb movements. Human Neurobiol 2: 235–244

  17. DeLong MR, Crutcher MD, Georgopoulos AP (1985) Primate globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus: functional organization. J Neurophysiol 53: 530–543

  18. DeVito JL, Anderson ME, Walsh KE (1980) A horseradish peroxidase study of afferent connections of the globus pallidus in Macaca mulatta. Exp Brain Res 38: 65–73

  19. Evarts EV (1968) Relation of pyramidal tract activity to force exerted during voluntary movement. J Neurophysiol 31: 14–27

  20. Evarts EV (1969) Activity of pyramdial tract neurons during postural fixation. J Neurophysiol 32: 375–385

  21. Francois C, Percheron G, Yelnik J, Heyner S (1984) A golgi analysis of the primate globus pallidus. I. Inconstant processes of large neurons, other neuronal types, and afferent axons. J Comp Neurol 227: 182–199

  22. Georgopoulos AP, DeLong MR, Crutcher MD (1983) Relations between parameters of step-tracking movements and single cell discharge in the globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus of the behaving monkey. J Neurosci 3: 1586–1598

  23. Heimer L, Wilson RD (1975) The subcortical projections of the allocortex. Similarities in the neural associations of the hippocampus, the piriform cortex, and the neocortex. In: Santini M (ed) Golgi centennial symposium: perspectives in neurology. Raven Press, New York, pp 177–193

  24. Heimer L (1978) The olfactory cortex and the ventral striatum. In: Livingston KE, Hornykiewicz O (eds) Limbic mechanisms. Plenum Press, New York, pp 95–187

  25. Heimer L, Switzer RD, Hoesen GW Van (1982) Ventral striatum and ventral pallidum components of the motor system? Trends Neurosci 5: 83–87

  26. Hepp-Reymond MC, Wyss UR, Anner R (1978) Neuronal coding of static force in the primate motor cortex. J Physiol (Paris) 74: 287–291

  27. Hikosaka O, Wurtz RH (1983) Visual and oculomotor functions of monkey substantia nigra pars reticulata. I. Relation of visual and auditory responses to saccades. J Neurophysiol 49: 1230–1253

  28. Johnson TN, Rosvold HE (1971) Topographic projections on the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra of selectively placed lesions in the precommissural caudate nucleus and putamen in the monkey. Exp Neurol 33: 584–596

  29. Kemp JM, Powell TPS (1970) The corticostriate projection in the monkey. Brain 93: 525–546

  30. Kitai ST (1981) Electrophysiology of the corpus striatum and brain stem integrating systems. In: Brookhart JM, Mountcastle VB, Brooks VB (eds) Handbook of physiology. The nervous system. American Physiological Society, Bethesda Maryland, pp 997–1015

  31. Künzle H (1975) Bilateral projections from precentral motor cortex to the putamen and other parts of the basal ganglia. An autoradiographic study in Macaca fascicularis. Brain Res 88: 195–209

  32. Künzle H (1977) Projections from the primary somatosensory cortex to basal ganglia and thalamus in the monkey. Exp Brain Res 30: 481–492

  33. Künzle H (1978) An autoradiographic analysis of the efferent connections from premotor and adjacent prefrontal regions (areas 6 and 9) in Macaca fascicularis. Brain Behav Evol 15: 185–234

  34. Liles SL (1983) Activity of neurons in the putamen associated with wrist movements in the monkey. Brain Res 263: 156–161

  35. Liles SL (1985) Activity of neurons in putamen during active and passive movements of wrist. J Neurophysiol 53: 217–236

  36. Mitchell SJ, Richardson RT, Baker FH, DeLong MR (1987) The primate nucleus basalis of Meynert: neuronal activity related to a visuomotor tracking task. Exp Brain Res 68: 506–515

  37. Nauta WJH, Mehler WR (1966) Projections of the lentiform nucleus in the monkey. Brain Res 1: 3–42

  38. Parent A, Bouchard C, Smith Y (1984) The striatopallidal and striatonigral projections: two distinct fiber systems in primate. Brain Res 303: 385–390

  39. Percheron G, Yelnik J, Francois C (1984) A golgi analysis of the primate globus pallidus. III. Spatial organization of the striato-pallidal complex. J Comp Neurol 227: 214–227

  40. Smith AM, Hepp-Reymond MC, Wyss UR (1975) Relation of activity in precentral cortical neurons to force and rate of force change during isometric contractions of finger muscles. Exp Brain Res 23: 315–332

  41. Szabo J (1962) Topical distribution of the striatal efferents in the monkey. Exp Neurol 5: 21–36

  42. Szabo J (1967) The efferent projections of the putamen in the monkey. Exp Neurol 19: 463–476

  43. Yelnik J, Percheron G, Francois C (1984) A golgi analysis of the primate globus pallidus. II. Quantitative morphology and spatial orientation of dendritic arborizations. J Comp Neurol 227: 200–213

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to S. J. Mitchell.

Additional information

This work was supported by grants from the U.S. Public Health Service (NIH NS15417 and NIH NS20471)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Mitchell, S.J., Richardson, R.T., Baker, F.H. et al. The primate globus pallidus: neuronal activity related to direction of movement. Exp Brain Res 68, 491–505 (1987). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00249793

Download citation

Key words

  • Globus pallidus
  • Neuronal activity
  • Primate
  • Movement
  • Somatosensory