A process for the capacitive deionization of water with a stack of carbon aerogel electrodes has been developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Unlike ion exchange, one of the more conventional deionization processes, no chemicals are required for regeneration of the system. Electricity is used instead. An aqueous solution of NH4ClO4 is pumped through the electrochemical cell. After polarization, NH in4 su+ and ClO in4 su− ions are removed from the water by the imposed electric field and trapped in the extensive cathodic and anodic double layers. This process produces one stream of purified water and a second stream of concentrate. The effects of cell voltage, salt concentration, and cycling on electrosorption capacity have been studied in detail.
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Farmer, J.C., Fix, D.V., Mack, G.V. et al. Capacitive deionization of NH4ClO4 solutions with carbon aerogel electrodes. J Appl Electrochem 26, 1007–1018 (1996). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00242195
- Physical Chemistry
- Aqueous Solution
- Salt Concentration
- Double Layer
- National Laboratory