Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Chemical composition of antarctic zooplankton during austral fall and winter

  • 155 Accesses

  • 36 Citations

Abstract

Water level, ash content, proximate (protein, lipid, carbohydrate and chitin) and elemental (carbon and nitrogen) composition were analyzed in twentythree species of Antarctic Zooplankton collected during the austral fall (1986) and winter (1988) from the Scotia/Weddell Sea region. Extremes in water level, ash content and organic components were typified by copepods and gelatinous forms. Ostracods and polychaetes were generally similar in composition to copepods, being only slightly higher in water level and ash content. Chaetognaths exhibited a composition intermediate in character with some components similar in value to that shown by crustaceans (i.e. protein) while other components were more in the range of values seen in gelatinous forms (i.e. water level and ash content). Protein was the major proximate component and measured values (as % Afdw) were fairly uniform among non-gelatinous species (x=33.9±6.9). Lipid levels were variable, with high values (>30% AFDW) only found for the copepods Calanoides acutus, Calanus propinquus and Euchaeta antarctica. Carbohydrate values were low in all species examined. Chitin was measured in crustacean species only. With the exception of C. acutus (x=2.5% AFDW chitin), values were similar among species with mean values being slightly higher in fall (x=11.8±2.5) than in winter (x=6.7±1.8). Among non-gelatinous species, the ratio of carbon to nitrogen was positively correlated with the lipid to protein ratio, underscoring the compositional association between elemental and proximate components in these groups. In gelatinous species, the relationship between carbon:nitrogen and lipid:protein was inconsistent and less pronounced. Caloric content was estimated from recovered organic matter for nongelatinous species. As a function of wet weight and dry weight, values reflected differences in water level and ash content among individual species. As a function of ashfree dry weight, values were similar among all species (x=3.6±0.9 kcal/g).

Seasonal comparisons were possible for 12 of the 23 species. Among crustaceans, changes in water level and organic components were variable reflecting dissimilar trophic, reproductive or ecological habits among different species. Essentially no change in composition between fall and winter was observed for diapause species (e.g. Calanoides acutus and Rhincalanus gigas) as well as for omnivorous/ carnivorous species (e.g. Gaetanus tenuispinus). Conversely, large compositional changes were evident for Calanus propinquus, a small-particle grazer that relies heavily on lipid reserves. Chaetognaths and some gelatinous species exhibited a considerable decrease in ash content from fall to winter which, for most cases, was mirrored by some degree of increase in lipid level. At present, however, scant data are available to help explain the observed patterns of compositional change within non-crustacean species.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Atkinson A (1991) Life cycles of Calanus acutus, Calanus simillimus and Rhincalanus gigas (Copepoda: Calanoida) within the Scotia Sea. Mar Biol 109:79–91

  2. Båmstedt U (1978) Studies on the deep-water pelagic community of Korsfjorden, western Norway. Seasonal variation in weight and biochemical composition of Chiridius armatus (Copepoda), Boreomysis arctica (Mysidacea), and Eukrohnia hamata (Chaetognatha) in relation to their biology. Sarsia 63:145–154

  3. Båmstedt U (1981) Water and organic content of boreal macrozooplankton and their significance for the energy content. Sarsia 66:59–66

  4. Båstedt U (1986) Chemical composition and energy content. In: Corner EDS and O'Hara SCM (eds) The biological chemistry of marine copepods. Oxford University Press, New York pp 1–58

  5. Childress JJ, Nygaard M (1974) Chemical composition and buoyancy of midwater crustaceans as function of depth of occurrence off southern California. Mar Biol 27:225–238.

  6. Clarke A (1984) The lipid content and composition of some Antarctic macrozooplankton. Br Antarct Surv Bull 63:57–70

  7. Clarke A, Holmes LJ, Gore DJ (1992) Proximate and elemental composition of gelatinous Zooplankton from the Southern Ocean. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 155:55–68

  8. Conover RJ, Corner EDS (1968) Respiration and nitrogen excretion by some marine Zooplankton in relation to their life cycles. J mar biol Ass UK 48:49–75

  9. Conover RJ, Huntley M (1991) Copepods in ice-covered seas-Distribution, adaptations to seasonally limited food, metabolism, growth patterns and life cycle strategies in polar seas. J Mar Sys 2:1–41

  10. David PM (1955) The distribution of Sagitta gazellae RitterZahony. Discovery Rep 27:235–278

  11. Donnelly J, Torres JJ, Hopkins TL, Lancraft TM (1990) Proximate composition of Antarctic mesopelagic fishes. Mar Biol 106:13–23

  12. Falk-Petersen S (1981) Ecological investigations on the Zooplankton community of Balsfjorden, northern Norway: seasonal changes in body weight and the main biochemical composition of Thysanoessa inermis (Krøyer), T. raschii (M. Sars), and Meganyctiphanes norvegica (M. Sars) in relation to environmental factors. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 49:103–120

  13. Falk-Petersen S, Sargent JR, Tande KS (1987) Lipid composition of Zooplankton in relation to the sub-Arctic food web. Polar Biol 8:115–120

  14. Hagen W (1988) On the significance of lipids in Antarctic zooplankton. Ber Polarforsch 49:1–129

  15. Hoeger U (1983) Biochemical composition of ctenophores. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 72:251–261

  16. Hopkins TL (1985) Food web of an Antarctic midwater ecosystem. Mar Biol 89:197–212

  17. Hopkins TL (1987) Midwater food web in McMurdo Sound, Ross Sea, Antarctica. Mar Biol 96:93–106

  18. Hopkins TL, Torres JJ (1989) Midwater food web in the vicinity of a marginal ice zone in the western Weddell Sea. Deep-Sea Res 36:543–560

  19. Hopkins TL, Lancraft TM, Torres JJ, Donnelly J (1993) Community structure and trophic ecology of Zooplankton in the Scotia Sea marginal ice zone in winter (1988). Deep-Sea Res 40:81–105

  20. Hopkins TL, Ainley DG, Torres JJ, Lancraft TM (in press) Trophic structure in open waters adjacent to the marginal ice zone in the Southern Scotia Sea in spring (1983). Polar Biol

  21. Huntley ME, Sykes PF, Marin V (1989) Biometry and trophodynamics of Salpa thompsoni Foxton (Tunicata: Thaliacea) near the Antarctic Peninsula in austral summer, 1983–1984 Polar Biol 10:59–70

  22. Ikeda T (1972) Chemical composition and nutrition of Zooplankton in the Bering Sea. In: Takenouti AY (ed) Biological Oceanography of the northern North Pacific Ocean. Idemitsu shoten, Tokyo pp 433–442

  23. Ikeda T, Bruce B (1986) Metabolic activity and elemental composition of krill and other Zooplankton from Prydz Bay, Antarctica, during early summer (November–December). Mar Biol 92:545–555

  24. Ikeda T, Hing Fay E (1981) Metabolic activity of Zooplankton from the Antarctic Ocean. Aust J Mar Freshwater Res 32:921–930

  25. Ikeda T, Kirkwood R (1989) Metabolism and elemental composition of a giant chaetognath Sagitta gazellae from the Southern Ocean. Mar Biol 100:261–267

  26. Ikeda T, Mitchell AW (1982) Oxygen uptake, ammonia excretion and phosphate excretion by krill and other Antarctic zooplankton in relation to their body size and chemical composition. Mar Biol 71:283–298

  27. Ikeda T, Skjoldal HR (1989) Metabolism and elemental composition of Zooplankton from the Barents Sea during early Arctic summer. Mar Biol 100:173–183

  28. Kosobokova KN (1980) Caloric value of some Zooplankton representatives from the central Arctic Basin and the White Sea. Oceanology 20:84–89

  29. Lancraft TM, Torres JJ, Hopkins TL (1989) Micronekton and macrozooplankton in the open waters near Antarctic ice edge zones (AMERIEZ 1983 and 1986). Polar Biol 9:225–233

  30. Lancraft TM, Hopkins TL, Torres JJ, Donnelly J (1991) Oceanic micronektonic/macrozooplanktonic community structure and feeding in ice covered Antarctic waters during the winter (AMERIEZ 1988). Polar Biol 11:157–167

  31. Lee RF (1974) Lipid composition of the copepod Calanus hyperboreas from the Arctic Ocean. Changes with depth and season. Mar Biol 26:313–318

  32. Lee RF (1975) Lipids of Arctic Zooplankton. Comp Biochem Physiol 518:263–266

  33. Littlepage JL (1964) Seasonal variation in lipid content of two Antarctic marine Crustacea. Actual scient ind 1312:463–470

  34. Marin V (1988) Qualitative models of the life cycles of Calanoides acutus, Calanus propinquus, and Rhincalanus gigas. Polar Biol 8:439–446

  35. Marshall SM, Orr AP (1955) On the biology of Calanus finmarchicus. VII. Food uptake, assimilation and excretion in adult and stage V Calanus. J mar biol Ass UK 34:495–529

  36. Mayzaud P, Martin J-LM (1975) Some aspects of the biochemical and mineral composition of marine plankton. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 17:297–310

  37. Omori M (1969) Weight and chemical composition of some important oceanic Zooplankton in the North Pacific Ocean. Mar Biol 3:4–10

  38. Percy JA, Fife FJ (1981) The biochemical composition and energy content of Arctic marine macrozooplankton. Arctic 34:307–313

  39. Raymont JEG, Austin J, Linford E (1967) The biochemical composition of certain oceanic zooplanktonic decapods. Deep-Sea Res 14:113–115

  40. Reeve MR, Raymont JEG, Raymont JKB (1970) Seasonal biochemical composition and energy sources of Sagitta hispida. Mar Biol 6:357–364

  41. Reinhardt SB, VanVleet ES (1986) Lipid composition of twentytwo species of Antarctic midwater Zooplankton and fish. Mar Biol 91:149–159

  42. Sargent, JR (1976) Structure, metabolism and function of lipids in marine organisms. In: Malins DC, Sargent JR (eds) Biochemical and biophysical perspectives in marine biology. Academic Press, London pp 149–212

  43. Sargent JR, Henderson RJ (1986) Lipids. In: Corner EDS, O'Hara SCM (eds) The biological chemistry of marine copepods. Oxford University Press, New York pp 59–108

  44. Sargent JR, Gatten RR, Henderson RJ (1981) Lipid biochemistry of Zooplankton from high latitudes. Oceanis 7:623–632

  45. Schnack SB (1985) Feeding by Euphausia superba and copepod species in response to varying concentrations of phytoplankton. In: Siegfried WR, Condy PR, Laws RM (eds) Antarctic nutrient cycles and food webs. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York pp 311–323

  46. Schnack-Schiel SB, Hagen W, Mizdalski E (1991) Seasonal comparison of Calanoides acutus and Calanus propinquus (Copepoda: Calanoida) in the southeastern Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 70:17–27

  47. Fsuji A, Kinoshita T, Masanori H (1969) Analytical chemical studies on amino sugars. II. Determination of hexosamines using 3 methyl-2-benzothiazolone hydrazone hydrochloride. Chem Pharm Bull 17:1505–1510

  48. Tyler AV (1973) Caloric values of some North Atlantic invertebrates. Mar Biol 19:258–261

  49. Wissing TE, Darnell RM, Ibrahim MA, Berner Jr. L (1973) Caloric values of marine animals from the Gulf of Mexico. Contr Mar Sci 17:1–7

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Donnelly, J., Torres, J.J., Hopkins, T.L. et al. Chemical composition of antarctic zooplankton during austral fall and winter. Polar Biol 14, 171–183 (1994). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00240522

Download citation

Keywords

  • Water Level
  • Chitin
  • Lipid Level
  • Polychaete
  • Organic Component