A number of neurones in the nucleus reticularis parvicellularis of the medulla and in or near the locus coeruleus were found to be directly excited or trans-synaptically activated in self-stimulation of sites in the lateral hypothalamus, midbrain tegmentum and pontine tegmentum. A number of neurones in the same lateral regions of the medulla and pons were trans-synaptically activated in self-stimulation of the sulcal and the medial prefrontal cortex.
Neurones in these regions were not activated by stimulation applied to nucleus accumbens self-stimulation electrodes. Therefore activation of neurones in these regions may not be necessary for brain-stimulation reward.
Neurones in the ventromedial reticular formation of the pons and medulla (close to the decussation of the superior cerebellar penduncle, and in the nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis and the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis of the medulla) were activated from the self-stimulation sites and were also activated from non-self-stimulation, motor effect sites in the midbrain tegmentum. Therefore the activation of these neurones may be related to the motor effects, respiratory changes and other side effects which often accompany self-stimulation.
It is concluded that the activation of neurones in the region of the locus coeruleus and the nucleus reticularis parvicellularis is closely related to self-stimulation of many brain sites, but is not necessary for brain-stimulation reward.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Bergquist, E.H.: Output pathways of hypothalamic mechanisms for sexual, aggressive and other motivational behaviours in opposum. J. comp. physiol. Psychol. 70, 389–398 (1970)
Boyd, E.S., Gardner, L.C.: Effect of some brain lesions on intracranial self-stimulation in the rat. Amer. J. Physiol. 213, 1044–1052 (1967)
Brodal, A.: The Reticular Formation of the Brain Stem: Anatomical aspects and functional correlations. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd 1957
Crow, T.J.: A map of the rat mesencephalon for electrical self-stimulation. Brain Res. 36, 265–273 (1972)
Crow, T.J., Spear, P.J., Arbuthnott, G.W.: Intracranial self-stimulation with electrodes in the region of the locus coeruleus. Brain Res. 36, 275–287 (1972)
De Groot, J.: The rat forebrain in stereotaxic coordinates. Verh. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wet., B. Naturkunde 2, 1–40 (1959)
Fifková, E., Marsala, J.: Stereotaxic atlases for the rat, rabbit and monkey. In: Electrophysiological Methods in Biological Research, pp. 653–731. Ed. by J. Bureš, M. Petran and J. Zachar. New York-London: Academic Press 1967
Hellon, R.F.: The marking of electrode tip positions in nervous tissue. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 34, 12 P (1971)
Ito, M., Olds, J.: Unit activity during self-stimulation behavior. J. Neurophysiol. 34, 263–273 (1971)
Keene, J.J., Casey, K.L.: Excitatory connection from lateral hypothalamic self-stimulation sites to escape sites in medullary reticular formation. Exp. Neurol. 28, 155–166 (1970)
König, J.F.R., Klippel, R.A.: The Rat Brain. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins 1963
Leonard, C.M.: The prefrontal cortex in the rat. I. Cortical projections of the mediodorsal nucleus. II. Efferent connections. Brain Res. 12, 321–342 (1969)
Nakajima, S.: Effects of intracranial chemical injections upon self-stimulation in the rat. Physiol. Behav. 8, 741–746 (1972)
Pellegrino, L.J., Cushman, A.J.: A Stereotaxic Atlas of the Rat Brain. New York: AppletonCentury-Crofts 1967
Olds, M.E., Olds, J.: Approach-avoidance analysis of rat diencephalon. J. comp. Neurol. 120, 259–295 (1963)
Olds, M.E., Olds, J.: Effects of lesions in medial forebrain bundle on self-stimulation behavior. Amer. J. Physiol. 217, 1253–1264 (1969)
Rolls, E.T.: Involvement of brainstem units in medial forebrain bundle self-stimulation. Physiol. Behav. 7, 297–310 (1971a)
Rolls, E.T.: Absolute refractory period of neurons involved in MFB self-stimulation. Physiol. Behav. 7, 311–315 (1971b)
Rolls, E.T.: Contrasting effects of hypothalamic and nucleus accumbens septi self-stimulation on brain stem single unit activity and cortical arousal. Brain Res. 31, 275–285 (1971c)
Rolls, E.T.: Activation of amygdaloid neurones in reward, eating and drinking elicited by electrical stimulation of the brain. Brain Res. 45, 365–381 (1972)
Rolls, E.T.: Refractory periods of neurons involved in stimulus-bound eating and drinking in the rat. J. comp. physiol. Psychol. 82, 15–22 (1973)
Rolls, E.T.: The neural basis of brain-stimulation reward. Progress in Neurobiology, 3 (in press) (1974)
Rolls, E.T., Cooper, S.J.: Activation of neurones in the prefrontal cortex by brain-stimulation reward in the rat. Brain Res. 60, 351–368 (1973)
Rolls, E.T., Cooper, S.J.: Connection between prefrontal cortex and pontine brain-stimulation reward sites in the rat. Exp. Neurol. 42, 687–699 (1974a)
Rolls, E.T., Cooper, S.J.: Anesthetization and stimulation of the sulcal prefrontal cortex and brain-stimulation reward. Physiol. Behav. 12, 563–571 (1974b)
Rolls, E.T., Kelly, P.H.: Neural basis of stimulus-bound locomotor activity in the rat. J. comp. physiol. Psychol. 81, 173–182 (1972)
Rolls, E. T., Rolls, B. J., Kelly, P. H., Shaw, S. G., Dale, R: The relative attenuation of self-stimulation, eating and drinking produced by dopamine-receptor blockade. Psychopharm. (Berl.) (in press) (1974)
Routtenberg, A.: Forebrain pathways of reward in Rattus norvegicus, J. oomp. physiol. Psychol. 75, 269–276 (1971)
Routtenberg, A., Huang, Y.H.: Reticular formation and brainstem unitary activity: Effects of posterior hypothalamic and septal-limbic stimulation at reward loci. Physiol. Behav. 3, 611–617 (1968)
Routtenberg, A., Malsbury, C.: Brainstem pathways of reward. J. comp. physiol. Psychol. 68, 22–30 (1969)
Stein, L.: Chemistry of purposive behavior. In: Reinforcement and Behavior. pp. 228–255. Ed. by J.T. Tapp. New York-London: Academic Press 1969
Stein, L.: Neurochemistry of reward and punishment: some implications for the etiology of schizophrenia. J. psychiat. Res. 8, 345–361 (1971)
Ungerstedt, U.: Stereotaxic mapping of the monoamine pathways in the rat brain. Acta physiol. scand. Suppl. 367, 1–48 (1971)
About this article
Cite this article
Cooper, S.J., Rolls, E.T. Relation of activation of neurones in the pons and medulla to brain-stimulation reward. Exp Brain Res 20, 207–222 (1974). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00238313
- Locus coeruleus