Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Response of the human vestibulo-ocular reflex following long-term 2x magnified visual input

  • 57 Accesses

  • 20 Citations

Summary

This study examines the contribution of predictive motor programming to the adjustment of vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gains after exposure to spectacles with a 2x magnification. When fully adapted, subjects exhibited two-fold gain increases with a 3 Hz sinewave stimulus with both an imaginary earth-fixed and imaginary moving target. Before complete adaptation was achieved, quick phases embedded in the slow component were observed intermittently which compensated for insufficient VOR gain. At 0.5 Hz in the same state of full adaptation during fixation of an imaginary earth-fixed target subjects exhibited a gain increase of only approximately 75% indicating that the contribution of VOR adjustment is not sufficient for perfect visual stabilization at lower frequencies. Over the range of random stimulation (0.5–5 Hz), the VOR failed to exhibit complete adaptation. The degree of adaptation derived with a VOR-cancellation task was less overall than that with a task requiring perfect compensatory eye movements. These findings indicate that central motor programmes are required in the adaptive process to achieve visual stability.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Albus JS (1971) A theory of cerebellar function. Math Biosci 10: 25–61

  2. Angaut P, Brodal A (1967) The projection of the “vestibulocerebellum” onto the vestibular nuclei in the cat. Arch Ital Biol 105: 411–479

  3. Bendat JS, Piersol AG (1971) Random data: analysis and measurement procedures. Wiley-Interscience, New York

  4. Benson AJ, Barnes GR (1978) Vision during angular oscillation: the dynamic interaction of visual and vestibular mechanisms. Aviat Space Environ Med 46: 340–345

  5. Brodal A, Høivik B (1964) Site and mode of termination of primary vestibulo-cerebellar fibers in the cat. Arch Ital Biol 102: 1–21

  6. Demer JL, Robinson DA (1982) Effects of reversible lesions and stimulation of olivocerebellar system on vestibuloocular reflex plasticity. J Neurophysiol 47: 1084–1107

  7. Dichgans J, Bizzi E, Morasso P, Tagliasco U (1973) Mechanisms underlying recovery of eye-head coordination following bilateral labyrinthectomy in monkeys. Exp Brain Res 1: 4–62

  8. Dichgans J, Bizzi E, Morasso P, Tagliasco U (1974) The role of vestibular and neck afferents during eye-head co-ordination in the monkey. Brain Res 71: 225–232

  9. Dow RS (1938) Efferent connections of the flocculo-nodular lobe in Macaca mulatta. J Comp Neurol 68: 297–305

  10. Gauthier GM, Robinson DA (1975) Adaptation of the human vestibuloocular reflex to magnifying lenses. Brain Res 92: 331–335

  11. Gonshor A, Melvill Jones G (1971) Plasticity in the adult human vestibulo-ocular reflex arc. Proc Can Fed Biol Sci 14: 11

  12. Gonshor A, Melvill Jones G (1973) Changes of human vestibuloocular response induced by vision-reversal during head rotation. J Physiol (Lond) 234: 102–103

  13. Gonshor A, Melvill Jones G (1976) Extreme vestibulo-ocular adaptation induced by prolonged optical reversal of vision. J Physiol (Lond) 256: 381–414

  14. Hoyt WF, Daroff RB (1971) Supranuclear disorders of ocular control systems in man: clinical, anatomical, and physiological correlations. In: Bach-y-Rita P, Collins CC, Hyde JE (eds) The control of eye movements. Academic Press, New York London, pp 175–235

  15. Hydén D, Istl YE, Schwarz DWF (1982) Human visuo-vestibular interaction as a basic for quantitative clinical diagnostics. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 94: 53–60

  16. Istl Y, Hydén D, Schwarz DWF (1983) Quantification and localization of vestibular loss in unilaterally labyrinthectomized patients using a precise rotatory test. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 96: 437–445

  17. Ito M (1970) Neurophysiological aspects of the cerebellar motor control system. Int J Physiol 7: 162–176

  18. Ito M (1972) Neural design of the cerebellar motor control system. Brain Res 40: 81–84

  19. Ito M (1974) The control mechanisms of cerebellar motor system. In: Schmitt FO, Worden FG (eds) The neurosciences, third study program. MIT Press, Boston, pp 293–303

  20. Ito M (1982) The role of the cerebellum during motor learning in the vestibulo-ocular reflex: different mechanisms in different species? TINS 5: 416

  21. Ito M, Kano M (1982) Long-lasting depression of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell transmission induced by conjunctive stimulation of parallel fibers and climbing fibers in the cerebellar cortex. Neurosci Lett 33: 253–258

  22. Ito M, Shiida T, Yagi N, Yamamoto M (1974) Visual influence on rabbit horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex presumably effected via cerebellar flocculus. Brain Res 65: 170–174

  23. Larsby B, Tomlinson RD, Schwarz DWF, Istl Y, Frederickson JM (1982) Quantification of the vestibulo-ocular reflex and visual-vestibular interaction for the purpose of clinical diagnosis. MBEC 20: 99–107

  24. Maekawa K, Simpson JI (1973) Climbing fiber response evoked in vestibulocerebellum of rabbit from visual system. J Neurophysiol 36: 649–666

  25. Marr D (1969) A theory of the cerebellar cortex. J Physiol (Lond) 202: 437–470

  26. Meiry JL (1966) The vestibular system and human dynamic space orientation. NASA CR-628, Washington, D.C.

  27. Melvill Jones G, Davies P, Gonshor A (1977) Long-term effects of maintained vision reversal: is vestibulo-ocular adaptation either necessary or sufficient? In: Baker R, Berthoz A (eds) Control of gaze by brain stem neurons: developments in neuroscience. Elsevier, Amsterdam New York, pp 59–68

  28. Melvill Jones G, Gonshor A (1982) Oculomotor response to rapid head oscillation (0.5–5.0 Hz) after prolonged adaptation to vision-reversal. Exp Brain Res 45: 45–48

  29. Michael JA, Melvill Jones G (1965) Dependence of visual tracking capabilities upon stimulus predictability. Vision Res 6: 707–716

  30. Miles FA, Braitman DJ, Dow BM (1980) Long-term adaptive changes in primate vestibuloocular reflex. IV. Electrophysiological observations in flocculus of adapted monkeys. J Neurophysiol 43: 1477–1493

  31. Miles FA, Eighmy BB (1980) Long-term adaptive changes in primate vestibulo-ocular reflex. I. Behavioural observations. J Neurophysiol 43: 1406–1425

  32. Miles FA, Fuller JH (1974) Adaptive plasticity in the vestibuloocular responses of the rhesus monkey. Brain Res 80: 512–516

  33. Miles FA, Lisberger SG (1981) Plasticity in the vestibulo-ocular reflex: a new hypothesis. Ann Rev Neurosci 4: 273–298

  34. Optican LM, Zee DS, Miles FA, Lisberger SG (1980) Oculomotor deficits in monkeys with floccular lesions. Soc Neurosci Abstr 6: 474

  35. Robinson DA (1976) Adaptive gain control of vestibuloocular reflex by the cerebellum. J Neurophysiol 39: 954–969

  36. Ron S, Hackett P (1979) Modifiability of eye movements in brain injured patients. Workshop on Eye Movements Analysis in Neurological Diagnosis, Pavia

  37. Rossum J van (1969) Corticonuclear and corticovestibular projections of the cerebellum. Van Gorcum and Comp, Assen, Netherlands

  38. Schairer JO, Bennett MVL (1977) Adaptive gain control in vestibulo-ocular reflex of goldfish. Soc Neurosci Abstr 3: 157

  39. Tomlinson RD, Robinson DA (1981) Is the vestibulo-ocular reflex cancelled by smooth pursuit? In: Fuchs AF, Becker W (eds) Progress in oculomotor research. Elsevier, New York Amsterdam Oxford, pp 533–539

  40. Tomlinson RD, Saunders GE, Schwarz DWF (1980) Analysis of human vestibulo-ocular reflex during active head movements. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 90: 184–190

  41. Voogd J (1964) The cerebellum of the cat. Structure and fibre connections. Van Gorcum and Comp, Assen, Netherlands

  42. Wallman J, Velez J, Weinstein B, Green AE (1982) Avian vestibuloocular reflex: adaptive plasticity and developmental changes. J Neurophysiol 48: 952–967

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to D. W. F. Schwarz.

Additional information

Supported by the Medical Research Council of Canada and the Ontario Ministry of Health

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Istl-Lenz, Y., Hydén, D. & Schwarz, D.W.F. Response of the human vestibulo-ocular reflex following long-term 2x magnified visual input. Exp Brain Res 57, 448–455 (1985). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00237831

Download citation

Key words

  • Vestibulo-ocular reflex
  • Central motor programmes
  • Random oscillation
  • Magnified visual input
  • Adaptation