Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Improved shoot multiplication of mature hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) in vitro using glucose as a carbon source

  • 154 Accesses

  • 8 Citations


Shoot cultures established from mature trees of hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) cvs. Nonpareil and Tonda Gentile Romana were used to determine the effects of basal media, carbon sources and concentrations, pH and cytokinins on shoot multiplication. All factors except pH affected the multiplication rate. Shoot multiplication was the best on a modified Driver and Kuniyuki medium for Paradox walnut (DKW) supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) (1.5–3 mg/l). Plants grown on 3% glucose or fructose medium produced more and longer shoots than those on sucrose. The general appearance and growth habit of shoots were better on medium with glucose than fructose. ‘Nonpareil’ shoots elongated better than those of ‘Tonda Gentile Romana.’ Changes in medium pH from 4.7 to 5.7 did not significantly affect the multiplication rate. More than 10 genotypes propagated well on modified DKW medium with glucose. This is the first report of the effect of carbon sources on shoot multiplication of hazelnut and provides a basis for further research in the improvement of hazelnut micropropagation.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.



modified woody plant medium for chestnut (Yang et al. 1986)


Driver and Kuniyuki (1984) medium for Paradox walnut






N6-(2-isopentenyl) adenine




indole-3-butyric acid


  1. Anderson WC (1984) Comb Proc Intern Plant Prop Soc 33: 132–137

  2. Bassil N, Mok DWS, Mok MC (1992) Acta Hort 300: 137–140

  3. Cheng TY (1975) Plant Sci Lett 5: 97–102

  4. Diaz-Sala C, Rey M, Rodriguez R (1990) Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 23: 151–157

  5. Driver JA, Kuniyuki AH (1984) HortScience 19: 507–509

  6. Lloyd G, McCown BH (1981) Comb Proc Intern Plant Prop Soc 30: 421–427

  7. Messeguer J, Mele E (1987) Acta Hortic 212: 499–503

  8. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) Physiol Plant 15: 473–197

  9. Perez C, Rodriguez A, Revilla A, Rodriguez R, Sanchez-Tames R (1987) Acta Hortic 212: 505–510

  10. Pua E-C, Chong C (1985) J Amer Soc Hort Sci 110: 705–709

  11. Welander M, Welander NT, Brackman AS (1989) J HortScience 64: 361–366

  12. Wolfe D, Chin CK, Eck P (1986) HortScience 21: 296–298

  13. Yang QG, Read PE, Fellman CD, Hosier MA (1986) HortScience 21: 133–134

Download references

Author information

Additional information

Communicated by G. C. Phillips

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Yu, X., Reed, B.M. Improved shoot multiplication of mature hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) in vitro using glucose as a carbon source. Plant Cell Reports 12, 256–259 (1993).

Download citation


  • Glucose
  • Sucrose
  • Carbon Source
  • Fructose
  • Basal Medium