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Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from callus cultures of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

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Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration were obtained from immature leaflet callus of chickpea. Numerous globular embryos developed on the surface of callus on Murashige and Skoog's (1962) medium containing 25 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. These globular embryos differentiated into mature somatic embryos upon removal of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The maturation of embryos was significantly affected by pH, photoperiod, abscisic acid and genotype. Callus continued to produce somatic embryos for over 8 subcultures at 4 week intervals. Two per cent of the embryos formed plants on medium containing 15 μM gibberellic acid and 1 μM indole-3-butyric acid. Desiccation of embryos for a period of 3 d increased their rate of conversion into plants from 0.9 to 2.8%. All regenerated plants showed normal morphological characteristics.

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2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid


1-naphthaleneacetic acid







GA3 :

Gibberellic acid


Indole-3-butyric acid


Abscisic acid


Activated charcoal

AgNO3 :

Silver nitrate


Polyvinylpyrrolidone-40,000 mol wt


Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium


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Communicated by G. C. Phillips

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Barna, K.S., Wakhlu, A.K. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from callus cultures of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Plant Cell Reports 12, 521–524 (1993). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00236100

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  • Morphological Characteristic
  • Somatic Embryo
  • Somatic Embryogenesis
  • Plant Regeneration
  • Abscisic Acid