Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Conditioned motor reflexes in cats with damage to the hippocampus

  • 25 Accesses

  • 39 Citations

Summary

Hippocampal damage in cats led to: a) A temporary suppression of previously elaborated motor feeding conditioned reflexes (CR); b) A retardation (nearly twice) in the rate of elaboration of a new CR; c) A marked prolongation of latency of CR; d) A disinhibition of negative CR. li]2.|In experiments in which the animals were trained to approach the left-side feeder and press a pedal at one signal and the right-side feeder at another signal, destruction of the hippocampus led to frequent errors in the choice of the proper side of reinforcement.

When the choice reactions were elaborated before the operation, the errors were 30% after it. But when the same reactions were elaborated after hippocampal damage, the errors of choice amounted to 60%. li]3.|It is suggested that the hippocampus is one of the structures within the cortical-subcortical integrative system, which achieves simultaneous integration of excitations caused by the conditional signal, the surrounding environment and the mechanism of memory.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Allen, W.F.: Relationship of the Conditioned Olfactory-Foreleg Response to the Motor Centers of the Brain. Amer. J. Physiol. 121, 657–668 (1938).

  2. —: Effect of Ablating the Prepyriform-Amygdaloid Areas and Hippocampi on Positive and Negative Olfactory Conditioned Reflexes and on Conditioned olfactory Differentiation. Amer. J. Physiol. 132, 81–84 (1941).

  3. Anokhin, P.K.: Biology and Neurophysiology of Conditioned Reflex. Moscow: Medicine Press 1968.

  4. —: The functional system theory. Ouspekhi physiologitcheskikh naouk. 1, 19–54 (1970).

  5. Brady, I.V.: The Paleocortex and Behavioral Motivation. In: “Biological and Biochemical Bases of Behavior”, pp. 193–235. Ed. by H.F. Harlow and C.N. Woolsey. The University of Wisconsin Press, 1958.

  6. Bureš, J., Buresova, O., Weiss, T.: Functional consequences of hippocampal spreading depression. Physiol. bohemoslov. 9, 219–227 (1960)

  7. Danilova, R.A.: Influence of Destruction of the hippocampus Ribonuclear acid on chain conditioned reflexes in rats. J. Veshi Nervni Dehatelnesti 19, 427–432 (1969).

  8. Galambos, R., Morgan, C.T.: The neural basis of learning. Handbook of Physiology. A critical, comprehensive presentation of physiological knowledge and concepts. Section 1: Neurophysiology, Vol. III, pp. 1471–1499. Washington: American Physiological Society 1960.

  9. Gambarian, L.S.: Functional and Anatomical Structure of Conditioned Motor Reflex. Erevan: Armenian Academy Press 1959.

  10. - The Motor Analysor. Published for the National Library of Medicine, U.S. Public Health Service, Through the National Science Foundation. Washington D.C. by the Israel Program for Scientific Translations, 1963.

  11. —, Ganadian, V.O., Garibian, A.A., Sarkisian, J.S.: Method of Study of Conditioned Motor Reflexes in Cats. Biologitcheski Journal Armenii 19, 101–107 (1966).

  12. —, Garibian, A.A., Sarkisian, J.S., Ganadian, V.O.: Conditioned Motor Reflexes in Cats with Damage to the Globus Pallidus. Exp. Brain Res. 12, 92–104 (1971).

  13. Glees, P., Griffith, H.B.: Bilateral Destruction of the Hippocampus (Cornu Ammonis) in a Case of Dementia. Mschr. Psychiat. Neurol. 123, 193–204 (1952).

  14. Gouselnikov, V.I.: Electrophysiological Investigation of Analysor systems in the Phylogenesis of Vertebrates. Moscow: Moscow University Press 1965.

  15. Grastyan, E., Karmos, G.: The influence of hippocampal lesions on simple and delayed instrumental conditioned reflexes. Colloques internationaux du centre national de la recherche scientifique No. 107. Physiologie de l'hippocampe, pp. 225–239. Paris: Editions du centre National 1962.

  16. Green, J.R.: The hippocampus. Handbook of Physiology. A critical, comprehensive presentation of physiological knowledge and concepts. Section 1: Neurophysiology, Vol. II, pp. 1373–1389. Washington: American Physiological Society 1960.

  17. Grossman, S.P., Mountford, H.: Learning and extinction during chemically induced disturbance of hippocampal functions. Amer. J. Physiol. 207, 1387–1393 (1964).

  18. Isaacson, R.L., Douglas, R.J., Moore, R.V.: The Effect of Radical Hippocampal Ablation on Acquisition of Avoidance Response. J. comp. physiol. Psychol. 54, 625–628 (1961).

  19. Jasper, H., Ajmone-Marsan, C.: A Stereotaxic Atlas of the Diencephalon of the Cat. Ottawa 1954.

  20. Kaada, B.R., Rasmussen, E.W., Kveim, O.: Effects of Hippocampal Lesions on Maze Learning and Retention in Rats. Exp. Neurol. 3, 333–355 (1961).

  21. Karamian, A.I.: Functional Evolution of the Brain of Vertebrates. Leningrad: Science Press 1970.

  22. Karmos, G., Grastyan, E.: Influence of hippocampal lesions on simple and delayed conditional reflexes. Acta physiol. Acad. Sci. hung. 21, 215–224 (1962).

  23. Kimura, D.: Effects of Selective Hippocampal Damage on Avoidance Behaviour in the Rat. Canadian J. Psychol. 12, 213–218 (1958).

  24. Noutzoubidzeh, M.A.: The Role of the Limbic System in the Mechanisms of Emotions and Closure of Temporary Connections. Tbilisi: Medicine Press 1969.

  25. Pavlov, I.P.: Complete Collection of Works. Second Edition, Vol. III. Moscow: USSR Academy Press 1951.

  26. Penfield, W.: The role of the Temporal cortex in recall of Past experience and interpretation of the present. Neurological Basis of Behaviour Ciba Foundation Symposium, pp. 149–174, 1958.

  27. —, Milner, B.: Memory Deficit Produced by Bilateral Lesions in the Hippocampal Zone. A.M.A. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 79, 475–497 (1958).

  28. Pigareva, M.L.: Facilitation of conditioned switching over of heterogeneous conditioned reflexes in rats after lesion of the hippocampus. J. Veshi Nervni Dehatelnesti 20, 932–940 (1970).

  29. Pribram, R.H., Weiskrantz, L.: A Comparison of the Effects of Medial and Lateral Cerebral Resections on Conditioned Avoidance Behavior of Monkeys. J. comp. physiol. Psychol. 50, 74–80 (1957).

  30. Sager, 0.: Self-Regulating Mechanisms in the Cortical-Subcortical Correlation. In book: Brain Reflexes, pp. 218–225. Moscow: Science Press 1965.

  31. Semyonova, T.P.: The Functional role of the hippocampus in the formation and preservation of complex systems of conditioned reflexes. J. Veshi Nervni Dehatelnesti 17, 483–488 (1956).

  32. Sitdikova, V.V.: The hippocampus and visceral conditioned reflexes. J. Veshi Nervni Dehatelnesti 20, 1161–1167 (1970).

  33. Shoumilina, A.I.: The functional significance of the cortex of the frontal lobes in the conditional reflex activity of dogs. In book: The Problems of the Higher Nervous Activity, pp. 561–627. Moscow: Medical Academy Press 1949.

  34. Stepien, L.S., Cordeau, J.P., Rassmussen, T.: The effect of temporal lobe and hippocampal lesions on auditory and visual recent memory in monkeys. Brain 83, 470–489 (1960).

  35. Tushmalova, N.A., Melkova, I.V.: Food-Procuring conditioned reflexes of rabbits after injection of ribonuclease into different regions of the hippocampal dorsal area. J. Veshi Nervni Dehatelnesti 20, 519–523 (1970).

  36. Thomas, G.J., Otis, L.S.: Effects of Rhinencephalic Lesions on Conditioning of Avoidance Responses in the Rat. J. comp. physiol. Psychol. 51, 130–138 (1958).

  37. Voronin, L.G.: Comparative physiological data about the role of the hippocampus in conditioned reflex activity. In book: The Structure and Function of the Archipaleocortex. Gagri Talks, Vol. V, pp. 181–196. Moscow: Science Press 1968.

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Gambarian, L.S., Koval, I.N., Garibian, A.A. et al. Conditioned motor reflexes in cats with damage to the hippocampus. Exp Brain Res 15, 15–28 (1972). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00234955

Download citation

Key words

  • Hippocampus
  • Limbic system
  • Conditioned motor reflexes
  • Learning
  • Memory