Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Histopathological progression of hemic neoplasms in the tropical crab Paratelphusa hydrodromous (Herbst) treated with sublethal cadmium chloride


Tropical crab Paratelphusa hydrodromous were exposed in the laboratory to five sublethal cadmium chloride concentrations (0.02, 0.05, 0.25 and 0.50μM/L) for 30 days to evaluate the cellular inflammatory and chronic pathologic responses. The most frequent pathologic responses of hepatopancreas exposed to 0.25–0.50 μM CdCl2/L were atrophy of R-cells and the development of granulomatous reaction consisting of granulocytes and monomorphic basophilic cells. Coagulative necrosis was evident in the young oocytes at 0.05 μM CdCl2/L which was accompanied by the increased vitellophagia of follicle cells. Thirty-day exposure to 0.25–0.50 μM CdCl2/L shortened the reproductive life span of the crabs by inducing spontaneous atresia and granulocytosis. Eosinophilic granulocytes, the most numerous cell type found in the necrotic centers, phagocytosed the masses of cellular debris and yolk from cadmium-induced atretic oocytes. The widespread proliferation of basophilic cells related to hyalinocyte with high nucleocytoplasmic ratio would suggest the development of hemic neoplasia. Heavy granulocytic infiltration was the typical cellular inflammatory response during chronic pathological conditions.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Barry MM, Yevich PP (1975) The ecological, chemical and histopathological evaluation of an oil spill site. Part III. Histopathological studies. Mar Pollut Bull 6:171–173

  2. Brown RS, Wolke RE, Saila SB, Brown CW (1977) Prevalence of neoplasia in ten New England populations of the soft-shell clam (Mya arenaria). Ann NY Acad Sci. 298:522–534

  3. Calabrese A, MacInness JR, Nelson DA, Greig RA, Yevich PP (1984) Effects of long-term exposure to silver or copper on growth, bioaccumulation and histopathology in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. Mar Environ Res 11:253–274

  4. Costa HD, Ruby SM (1984) The effect of sublethal cyanide on vitellogenic parameters in rainbowtrout Salmo gairdneri. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 13:101–104

  5. Couch JA, Harshbarger JC, (1985) Effects of carcinogenic agents on aquatic animals: An environmental and experimental overview. Environ Carcinogenesis Rev 3:63–105

  6. Darmono, Denton GRW, Campbell RSF (1990) The pathology of cadmium and nickel toxicity in the banana shrimp (Penaeus merquiensis de Man). Asian Fish Sci 3:287–297

  7. Do F, Lubet P (1965) Les elements figures du sang des mollusques lamellibranches recherches preliminaires chez les Mytilides. Bull Soc Sci vet Lyon 67:153–165

  8. Farley CA, Sparks AK (1970) Proliferative diseases of hemocytes, endothelial cells and connective tissue cells in molluscs. Comp Leukemia Res 36:610–617.

  9. Herlin-Houteville P, Lubert PE (1975) The sexuality of pelecypod molluscs In: Reinboth R (ed) Intersexuality in the animal kingdom. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, pp. 179–187

  10. Icely JD, Nott JA (1980) Accumulation of copper within the “hepatopancreatic” caeca of Corophium volutator (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Mar Biol Berlin 57:193–199

  11. Lesniak JA, Ruby SM (1982) Histological and quantitative effects of sublethal cyanide exposure on oocyte development in rainbow trout. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 11:343–352

  12. Lockhead JH, Lockhead MS (1941) Studies on the blood and related tissues in Artemia (Crustacea, Anostraca). J Morphol 68:593–632

  13. Lowe DM, Moore MN (1978) Cytology and quantitative cytochemistry of a proliferative atypical haemocytic condition in Mytilus edulis. J Natl Cancer Inst 60:1455–1459

  14. —, — (1979) The cytology and occurrence of granulocytomas in mussels. Mar Pollut Bull 10:134–141

  15. Lowe DM, Pipe RK (1986) Hydrocarbon exposure in mussels: A quantitative study of the responses in the reproductive and nutrient storage cell systems. Aquat Toxicol 8:265–272

  16. Maung Myint V, Tyler PA (1982) Effects of temperature, nutritive and metal stressors on the reproductive biology of Mytilus edulis. Mar Biol 67:209–223

  17. Mix MC, Breese WP (1980) A cellular proliferative disorder in oysters (Ostrea chilensis) from Chiloe, Chile, South America. J Invert Pathol 36:123–124

  18. Overstreet RM, Van Devender T (1978) Implication of an environmentally induced hamartoma in commercial shrimps. J Invert Pathol 31:234–238

  19. Rosenthal H, Alderdice DF (1976) Sublethal effects of environmental stressors, natural and pollutional on marine fish eggs and larvae. J Fish Res Board Can 33:2047–2065

  20. Sangalang GB, O'Halloran MJ (1972) Cadmium-induced testicular injury and alterations of androgen synthesis in brooktrout. Nature (London). 240:470–471

  21. Sindermann CJ (1971) Internal defenses of crustacea: A review. Fish Bull (U.S.) 69(3):455–489

  22. Sparks AK (1972) Invertebrate pathology, Non-communicable diseases. Academic Press, NY

  23. Sparks AK, Lightner DV (1973) A tumor-like papilliform growth in the brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus). J Invertebr Pathol 22:203–212

  24. Van Harreveld A (1936) A physiological solution for freshwater crustaceans. Proc Soc Exper Biol Med 34:428–432

  25. Vogt G (1985) Histologie and cytologie der Mitteldarmdruse von Penaeus monodon (Decapoda). Zool Anz 215:61–80

  26. — (1987) Monitoring of environmental pollutants such as pesticides in prawn aquaculture by histological diagnosis. Aquaculture 67:157–164

  27. Vogt G, Storch V, Quinitio ET, Pascual FP (1985) Midgut gland as monitor organ for the nutritional value of diets in Penaeus monodon (Decapoda). Aquaculture 48:1–12

  28. Von Westernhagen H, Dethlefsen V (1975) Combined effects of cadmium and salinity on development and survival of flounder eggs. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 55:945–957

  29. Weitzman MC (1966) Oogenesis in the tropical crab Gecarcinus lateralis (Freminville). Z. Zellforsch 75:109–119

  30. Wolf PH (1974) Occurrence of a Haplosporidan in Sydney rock oysters (Crassostrea commercialis) from Moreton Bay Queensland. J Invertebr Pathol 19:416–417

  31. Yevich PP, Barszcz CA (1976) Gonadal and hematopoietic neoplasms in Mya arenaria. Mar Fish Rev 38(10):42–43

  32. —, — (1977) Neoplasia in soft-shell clams (Mya arenaria) collected from oil-impacted sites. Ann NY Acad Sci 298:409–426

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Victor, B. Histopathological progression of hemic neoplasms in the tropical crab Paratelphusa hydrodromous (Herbst) treated with sublethal cadmium chloride. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 25, 48–54 (1993).

Download citation


  • Pathologic Response
  • Follicle Cell
  • Cadmium Chloride
  • Coagulative Necrosis
  • Basophilic Cell