Trajectory formation of unrestrained forelimb target-reaching was investigated in six cats. A Selspotlike recording system was used for three-dimensional recording of the position of the wrist every 3 ms with the aid of two cameras detecting infrared light emitted from diodes taped to the wrist. These measurements allowed reconstruction of movement paths in the horizontal and sagittal planes and velocity profiles in the direction of the cartesian x, y and z co-ordinates. Horizontal movement paths were smoothly curved, segmented or almost linear. Sagittal movement paths were sigmoid. The net velocity profile was usually bell-shaped with longer deceleration than acceleration, but for some slow movements the velocity profile had a plateau. When the net velocity profile was bell-shaped, the averaged sagittal movement paths and normalized x (protraction) and z (lifting) velocity profiles were virtually superimposable for fast and slow movements: thus, movement speed was changed by parallel scaling of protraction and lifting. Comparison of movement paths and velocity profiles amongst the different cats revealed considerable differences. The ż profile was unimodal in one cat and double peaked in five cats: the second component was pronounced in two cats and small in the other three. The ż profile was unimodal and, except for one cat, it had later onset and summit than the first component of the x profile. In contrast to the interindividual differences, there was a high degree of intraindividual constancy over 6–12 months. It is postulated that the interindividual variability depends on chance differences established early during learning of the task and that the imprinted pattern remains, resulting in intra-individual constancy.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Abend W, Bizzi E, Morasso P (1982) Human arm trajectory formation. Brain 105: 331–348
Alstermark B, Lundberg A, Norrsell U, Sybirska E (1981) Integration in descending motor pathways controlling the forelimb in the cat. 9. Differential behavioural defects after spinal cord lesions interrupting defined pathways from higher centres to motoneurones. Exp Brain Res 42: 299–318
Alstermark B, Górska T, Johannisson T, Lundberg A (1986) Hypermetria in forelimb target-reaching after interruption of the inhibitory pathway from forelimb afferents to C3-C4 propriospinal neurones. Neurosci Res 3: 457–461
Alstermark B, Górska T, Lundberg A, Pettersson L-G, Walkowska M (1987) Effect of different spinal cord lesions on visually guided switching of target-reaching in cats. Neurosci Res 5: 63–67
Alstermark B, Górska T, Lundberg A, Pettersson L-G, Walkowska M (1990) Integration in descending motor pathways controlling the forelimb in the cat. 16. Visually guided switching of targetreaching. Exp Brain Res 80: 1–11
Alstermark B, Isa T, Lundberg A, Pettersson L-G, Tantisira B (1993) Characteristics of target-reaching in cats. II. Reaching to targets at different locations. Exp Brain Res 94: 287–294
Armand J, Kably B, Jacomy H (1991) Lesion-induced plasticity of the pyramidal tract during development in the cat. In: Tutorials in motor neuroscience. Requin J, Stelmach GE (eds). Kluwer, London New York, pp 625–640
Atkeson CG, Hollerbach JM (1985) Kinematic features of unrestrained vertical arm movements. J Neurosci 5: 2318–2330
Bernstein N (1967) The coordination and regulation of movements. Pergamon Press, Oxford
Brooks VB (1979) Motor programs revisited. In: Talbott RE, Humphrey DR (eds) Posture and movement. Raven Press, New York, pp 13–49
Flash T, Hogan N (1985) The coordination of arm movements: an experimentally confirmed mathematical model. J Neurosci 5: 1688–1703
Georgopoulos AP, Kalaska JF, Massey ST (1981) Spatial trajectories and reaction times of aimed movements: effects of practice, uncertainty and change in target location. J Neurophysiol. 46(4): 725–742
Górska T, Sybirska E (1980) Effects of pyramidal lesions on forelimb movements in the cat. Acta Neurobiol Exp 40: 843–859
Hollerbach JM (1984) Dynamic scaling of manipulator trajectories. Trans ASME 106: 102–106
Hollerbach JM, Flash T (1982) Dynamic interactions between limb segments during planar arm movement. Biol Cybern 44: 67–77
von Hofsten C (1979) Development of visually directed reaching: the approach phase. J Hum Mov Stud 5: 160–178
Illert M, Lundberg A, Tanaka R (1977) Integration in descending motor pathways controlling the forelimb in the cat. 3. Convergence on propriospinal neurones transmitting disynaptic excitation from the corticospinal tract and other descending tracts. Exp Brain Res 29: 323–346
Illert M, Lundberg A, Padel Y, Tanaka R (1978) Integration in descending motor pathways controlling the forelimb in the cat. 5. Properties of and monosynaptic excitatory convergence on C3-C4 propriospinal neurones. Exp Brain Res 33: 101–130
Jeannerod M (1984) The timing of natural prehension movements. J Mot Behav 16: 235–254
Jeannerod M (1988) The neural and behavioural organization of goal-directed movements. Clarendon Press, Oxford
Milner TE, Ijaz MM (1990) The effect of accuracy constraints on three-dimensional movement kinematic. Neurosci 35: 365–374
Morasso P (1981) Spatial control of arm movements. Exp Brain Res 42: 223–227
Pettersson L-G (1990) Forelimb movements in the cat: kinetic features and neuronal control. Acta Physiol Scand 140 [Suppl 594]
Soechting JF (1984) Effect of target size on spatial and temporal characteristics of a pointing movement in man. Exp Brain Res 54: 121–132
About this article
Cite this article
Alstermark, B., Lundberg, A., Pettersson, L.-. et al. Characteristics of target-reaching in cats. Exp Brain Res 94, 279–286 (1993). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00230297
- Wrist trajectory
- Velocity profiles