Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Gut fluorescence in herbivorous copepods: an attempt to justify the method

  • 154 Accesses

  • 40 Citations

Abstract

Recently the gut fluorescence technique has been critisized because of the possible degradation of chlorophyll into nonfluorescent derivatives during passage through copepod guts and changes of the gut passage time with food concentration. Here pigment budgets have been calculated in 6 experiments with Calanus finmarchicus CIV caught 2 km offshore of the Murmansk Marine Biological Institute (the Barents Sea, Dalnije Zelentsi) in September 1992. Copepods were fed with culture of Platymonas viridis at different concentrations. Gut pigment and ingestion rate increased with food concentration in a similar way. On average between 78% and 89% of ingested chlorophyll was recovered in the guts and faecal pellets. No trend for a greater loss of fluorescence at low food concentration than at high was observed. Pigment content of faecal pellets incubated in filtered seawater decreased by 20–30% in the first 7–12 h and by up to 60% in 48 h. The decline of pigment content was accompanied by a rapid bacterial growth (by a factor of 3 in 48 h). Gut passage time increased with decreasing food concentration (from 40 min at 9 µg pigm l−1 to 64 min at 0.9 µg pigm l−1). These results together with some data by other authors suggest that the gut fluorescence method can be used to estimate in situ grazing rate providing gut passage time is measured properly and there are no losses of faecal material. However, careful consideration should be given to the previous feeding history of copepods.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Arashkevich, E. G., L. Cahoon, G. G. Nikolaeva, A. G. Pelimski & L. A. Ponomareva, 1980. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of feeding of dominant zooplankton species (in Russian). In: Pelagic ecosystems of Peruvian region. Moscow, Nauka: 202–215.

  2. Arashkevich, E. G. & V. B. Tseitlin, 1978. Dependence of daily rations on food concentration in herbivorous copepods and their feeding mechanism. Oceanology 18: 37–46.

  3. Baars, M. A. & H. G. Franz, 1984. Grazing pressure of copepods on the phytoplankton stock of the central North Sea. Neth. J. Sea Res. 18: 120–142.

  4. Baars, M. A. & S. S. Oosterhuis, 1984. Diurnal feeding rhythms in North Sea copepods measured by gut fluorescence, digestive enzyme activity and grazing on labelled food. Neth. J. Sea Res. 18: 97–119.

  5. Bamstedt, U., H. C. Eilertsen, K. S. Tande, D. Slagstad & H. R. Skjodal, 1991. Copepod grazing and its potential impact on the phytoplankton development in the Barents Sea. Polar Res. 10: 339–354.

  6. Cary, S. C., J. T. Lovette, P. J. Perl, M. E. Huntley & M. Vemet, 1992. A microencapsulation technique for introducing pure compounds in zooplankton diets. Limnol. Oceanogr. 37: 404–413.

  7. Christoffersen, K. & A. M. Jespersen, 1986. Gut evacuation rates and ingestion rates of Eudiaptomus graciloides measured by means of the gut fluorescence method. J. Plankton Res. 8: 973–983.

  8. Conover, R. J., R. Durvasula, S. Roy & R. Wang, 1986. Probable loss of chlorophyll-derived pigments during passage through the gut of zooplankton, and some of the consequences. Limnol. Oceanogr. 31: 878–887.

  9. Dagg, M. J. & W. E. Walser, 1987. Ingestion, gut passage, and egestion by the copepod Neocalanus plumchrus in the laboratory and in the subarctic Pacific Ocean. Limnol. Oceanogr. 32: 178–188.

  10. Dam, H. G. & W. T. Peterson, 1988. The effect of temperature on the gut clearance rate constant of planktonic copepods. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 123: 1–14.

  11. Drits, A. V. & A. F. Pasternak, 1989. Effect of food concentration on feeding activity and gut clearance rate of herbivorous copepods in upwelling zones. Oceanology 29: 232–236.

  12. Drits, A. V., A. F. Pasternak, T. N. Semenova & M. V. Flint, 1990. Feeding of herbivorous copepods in upwelling regions. II. Diel rhythms, rations and grazing impact. Oceanology 30: 311–319.

  13. Drits, A. V., E. G. Arashkevich & T. N. Semenova, 1992. Pyrosoma atlanticum (Tunicata, Thaliacea): grazing impact on phytoplankton standing stock and role in organic carbon flux. J. Plankton Res. 14: 799–809.

  14. Drits, A. V., A. F. Pasternak & K. N. Kosobokova, 1993. Feeding, metabolism and body composition of the Antartic copepod Calanus propinyuus Brady with special reference to its life cycle. Polar Biol. 13: 13–21.

  15. Ellis, S. G. & L. F. Small, 1989. Comparison of gut evacuation rate of feeding and non-feeding Calanus marshallae. Mar. Biol.103: 175–181.

  16. Frost, B. W., 1972. Effects of size and concentration of food particles on the feeding behavior of the planktonic copepod Calanus pacificus. Limnol. Oceanogr. 31: 449–452.

  17. Frost, B. W., M. R. Landry & R. P. Hasset, 1983. Feeding behavior of large calanoid copepods Neocalanus cristatus and N. plumchrus from the subarctic Pacific Ocean. Deep-Sea Res. 30: 1–13.

  18. Gowing, M. M. & M. W. Silver, 1983. Origins and microenvironments of bacteria mediating faecal pellets decomposition in the sea. Mar. Biol. 73: 7–16.

  19. Head, E. J. H., 1992. Gut pigment accumulation and destruction by arctic copepods in vitro and in situ. Mar. Biol. 112: 583–592.

  20. Head, E. J. H. & L. R. Harris, 1992. Chlorophyll and carotenoid transformation and destruction by Calanus spp. grazing on diatoms. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Set. 86: 229–238.

  21. Hobbie, J. E., R. J. Daley & S. Jasper, 1977. Use of Nuclepore filters for counting bacteria by fluorescence microscopy. Appl. envir. Microbiol. 33: 1225–1228.

  22. Ishii, H., 1990. In situ feeding rhythms of herbivorous copepods, and the effect of starvation. Mar. Biol. 105: 91–98.

  23. Kiørboe, T., F. Møhlenberg & H. Nicolajsen, 1982. Ingestion rate and gut clearance in the planctonic copepod Centropages hamatus (Lilljeborg) in relation to food concentration and temperature. Ophelia 21: 181–194.

  24. Kiørboe, T., F. Møhlenberg & H. U. Riisgard, 1985. In situ feeding rates of planktonic copepods: a comparison of four methods. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 88: 67–81.

  25. Kiørboe, T. & P. T. Tiselius, 1987. Gut clearance and pigment destruction in a herbivorous copepod, Acartia tonsa and the determination of in situ grazing rates. J. Plankton Res. 9: 525–534.

  26. Klein, B., W. W. C. Gieskes & G. G. Kraay, 1986. Digestion of chlorophylls and carotenoids by the marine protozoan Oxyrrhis marina studied by h. p. l. c. analysis of algal pigments. J. Plankton Res. 8: 827–836.

  27. Lopez, M. D. G., M. E. Huntley & P. E. Sykes, 1988. Pigment destruction by Calanus pacificus: impact on the estimation of water column fluxes. J. Plankton Res. 10: 715–734.

  28. Mackas, D. & R. Bohrer, 1976. Fluorescence analysis of zooplankton gut contents and an investigation of diel feeding patterns. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 25: 77–85.

  29. Mackas, D. L. & K. E. Burns, 1986. Poststarvation feeding and swimming activity in Calanus pacificus and Metridia pacifica. Limnol. Oceanogr. 31: 383–392.

  30. Mayzaud, P. & S. Razouls, 1992. Degradation of gut pigment during feeding by a subantarctic copepod: Importance of feeding history and digestive acclimation. Limnol. Oceanogr. 37: 393–404.

  31. Mobley, C. T., 1987. Time-series ingestion rate estimates on individual Calanus pacificus Brodsky: interactions with environmental and biological factors. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 11: 199–216.

  32. Nemoto, T., 1968. Chlorophyll pigment in the stomach of euphausiids. J. Oceanogr. Soc. Japan 24: 253–260.

  33. Pasternak, A. F. & A. V. Drits, 1988. On possible degradation of chlorophyll-derived pigments during gut passage of herbivorous copepods. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Set. 49: 187–190.

  34. Penry, D. L. & B. W. Frost, 1990. Re-evaluation of the gut fullness (gut fluorescence) method for inferring ingestion rates of herbivorous copepods. Limnol. Oceanogr. 35: 1207–1214.

  35. Penry, D. L. & B. W. Frost, 1991. Chlorophyll a degradation by Calanus pacificus: Dependence on ingestion rate and digestive acclimation to food resources. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36: 147–159.

  36. Peterson, W., S. Painting & R. Barlow, 1990. Feeding rates of Calanoides carinatus: a comparison of five methods including evaluation of the gut fluorescence method. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 63: 85–92.

  37. Schnack, S. B., 1985. Feeding by Euphausia superba and copepod species in response to varying concentration of phytoplankton. In: Siegfried, W. B., P. R. Condy & R. M. Laws (eds), Antarctic nutrient cycles and food webs. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 311–323.

  38. Schnack-Schiel, S. B., W. Hagen & E. Mizdalski, 1991. Seasonal comparison of Calanoides acutus and Calanus propinquus (Copepoda: Calanoida) in the southeastern Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser 70: 17–27.

  39. Strickland, J. D. H. & T. R. Parsons, 1968. A practical handbook for sea water analysis. Bull. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 167.

  40. Timonin, A. G., E. G. Arashkevich, A. V. Drits & T. N. Semenova, 1992. Zooplankton dynamics in the northern Benguela ecosystem, with emphasis on the herbivorous copepods. South Aft. J. mar. Sci. 12: 545–560.

  41. Tseitlin, V B., 1993. Simulation modelling of gut passage time measurement in copepods. Oceanology (in press).

  42. Tseitlin, V. B., A. F. Pasternak & A. V. Drits, 1991.Does gut passage time in copepods depend on food concentration?Oceanology 31: 155–161.

  43. Tsuda, A. & T. Nemoto, 1987. The effect of food concentration on the gut clearance time of Pseudocalanus minutus Kroyer (Calanoida: Copepoda). J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 107: 121–130.

  44. Vilenkin, B. J. & M. N. Vilenkina, 1979. Respiration of waterinhabiting invertebrates (in Russian). In: I. E. Zaika (ed.), Advances of science and technique. VINITI, Moscow, 143.

  45. Wang, R. & R. I. Conover, 1986. Dynamics of gut pigment in the copepod Temora lonicornis and the determination of in situ grazing rates. Limnol. Oceanogr. 31: 867–877.

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Pasternak, A.F. Gut fluorescence in herbivorous copepods: an attempt to justify the method. Hydrobiologia 292, 241–248 (1994). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00229947

Download citation

Key words

  • gut pigment
  • gut passage time
  • pigment degradation
  • ingestion rate
  • herbivorous copepods