Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Fictive locomotion in the adult decerebrate rat

  • 92 Accesses

  • 14 Citations


In adult immobilised, decerebrate rats, administration of l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor centre, or a combination of the two elicited fictive locomotor patterns in hindlimb muscle nerves. The patterns correspond closely to those observed in decerebrate animals that were free to move.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Atsuta Y, Garcia-Rill E, Skinner RD (1990) Characteristics of electrically induced locomotion in rat in vitro brain stem-spinal cord preparation. J Neurophysiol 64:727–735

  2. Baev KV (1977) Rhythmic discharges in hindlimb motor nerves of the decerebrate, immobilized cat induced by intravenous injection of DOPA. Neurophysiology 9:165–167

  3. Barbeau H, Chau C, Rossignol S (1993) Noradrenergic agonists and locomotor training affect locomotor recovery after cord transection in adult cats. Brain Res Bull 30:387–393

  4. Bem T, Orsal D, Cabelguen JM (1993) Fictive locomotion in the adult thalamic rat. Exp Brain Res 97:301–304

  5. Cazalets JR, Grillner S, Menard I, Cremieux J, Clarac F (1990) Variability as a characteristic of immature motor systems: an electromyographic study of swimming in the newborn rat. Behav Brain Res 40:215–225

  6. Cazalets JR, Sqalli-Houssaini Y, Clarac F (1992) Activation of the central pattern generators for locomotion by serotonin and excitatory amino acids in neonatal rat. J Physiol (Lond) 455:187–204

  7. Coles SK, Iles JF, Nicolopoulos-Stournaras S (1989) The mesencephalic centre controlling locomotion in the rat. Neuroscience 28:149–157

  8. Cowley KC, Schmidt BJ (1994) A comparison of motor patterns induced by N-methyl-d-aspartate, acetylcholine and serotonin in the in vitro neonatal rat spinal cord. Neurosci Lett 171:147–150

  9. Fleshman JW, Lev-Tov A, Burke RE (1984) Peripheral and central control of flexor digitorum longus and flexor hallucis longus motoneurons: the synaptic basis for functional diversity. Exp Brain Res 54:133–149

  10. Goudard I, Orsal D, Cabelguen JM (1992) An electromyographic study of the hindlimb locomotor movements in the acute thalamic rat. Eur J Neurosci 4:1130–1139

  11. Grillner S (1981) Control of locomotion in bipeds, tetrapods, and fish. In: Brookhart JM, Mountcastle VB (eds) Motor control. (Handbook of physiology, sect 1, The nervous system, vol II) American Physiological Society, Bethesda, pp 1179–1236

  12. Gruner JA, Altman J, Spivak N (1980) Effects of arrested cerebellar development on locomotion in the rat. Exp Brain Res 40:361–373

  13. Iles JF, Coles SK (1991) Effects of loading on muscle activity during locomotion in the rat. In: Armstrong DM, Bush BMH (eds) Locomotor neural mechanisms in arthropods and vertebrates. Manchester University Press, Manchester, pp 196–201

  14. Leon R de, Hodgson JA, Roy RR, Edgerton VR (1994) Extensor-and flexor-like modulation within motor pools of the rat hind-limb during treadmill locomotion and swimming. Brain Res 654:241–250

  15. Magnuson DSK, Schramm MJ, MacLean JN (1995) Long-duration, frequency dependent motor responses evoked by ventrolateral funiculus stimulation in the neonatal rat spinal cord. Neurosci Lett 192:97–100

  16. Nicolopoulos-Stournaras S, Iles JF (1984) Hindlimb muscle activity during locomotion in the rat (Rattus norvegicus) (Rodentia:Muridae). J Zool (Lond) 203:427–440

  17. Pearson KG, Rossignol S (1991) Fictive motor pattern in chronic spinal cats. J Neurophysiol 66:1874–1887

  18. Perreault M-C, Angel MJ, Guertin P, McCrea DA (1995) Effects of stimulation of hindlimb flexor group II afferents during fictive locomotion in the cat. J Physiol (Lond) 487:211–220

  19. Perret C, Cabelguen JM (1980) Main characteristics of the hindlimb locomotor cycle in the decorticate cat with special reference to bifunctional muscles. Brain Res 187:333–352

  20. Rossignol S, Dubuc R (1994) Spinal pattern generation. Curr Opin Neurobiol 4:894–900

  21. Smith JL, Chung SH, Zernicke RF (1993) Gait-related motor pattern and hindlimb kinetics for the cat trot and gallop. Exp Brain Res 94:308–322

  22. Sqalli-Houssaini Y, Cazalets JR, Clarac F (1993) Oscillatory properties of the central pattern generator for locomotion in neonatal rats. J Neurophysiol 70:803–813

  23. Vanderwolf CH, Kolb B, Cooley RK (1978) Behaviour of the rat after removal of the neocortex and hippocampal formation. J Comp Physiol Psychol 92:156–175

  24. Viala D, Buser P (1971) Modalités d'obtention de rythmes locomoteurs chez le lapin spinal par traitements pharmacologiques (DOPA, 5-HTP, d-amphétamine). Brain Res 35:151–165

  25. Vidal C, Viala D, Buser P (1979) Central locomotor programming in the rabbit. Brain Res 168:57–73

  26. Yakhnitsa IA, Pilyavskii AI, Bulgakova NV (1985) Comparative analysis of the kinematics of hind limb movements in rats during different kinds of locomotion. Neurophysiology 17:127–135

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Iles, J.F., Nicolopoulos-Stournaras, S. Fictive locomotion in the adult decerebrate rat. Exp Brain Res 109, 393–398 (1996). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00229623

Download citation

Key words

  • Fictive locomotion
  • Mesencephalic locomotor region
  • l-Dopa
  • 5-Hydroxy-dl-tryptophan
  • Rat