Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Independent development of presynaptic specializations in olfactory cortex of the fetal rat

  • 23 Accesses

  • 9 Citations

Summary

Electron microscopy was used to study synaptogenesis in prepyriform cortex of fetal rat pups during early stages of synapse formation. Of special interest is the frequent occurrence of unapposed, developing synaptic specializations in axon and growth cone profiles. The location and morphology of the unapposed specializations suggests that thay are presynaptic in nature. These presumably immature presynaptic specializations are found in the lateral olfactory tract and subjacent cortex. Intermediate forms between uncontacted presynaptic specializations and definitive synapses suggest a synaptogenic sequence in which initial development of an immature presynaptic specialization begins without apposition of a postsynaptic element at that location. This implies that initiation of presynaptic development is not dependent upon postsynaptic contact and also raises the question of whether synaptic contacts could be established via presynaptic induction of postsynaptic formation.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Adinolfi AM (1972) Morphogenesis of synaptic junctions in layers I and II of the somatic sensory cortex. Exp Neurol 34:372–382

  2. Aghajanian GK, Bloom FE (1967) The formation of synaptic junctions in developing rat brain: a quantitative electron microscopic study. Brain Res 6:716–727

  3. Altman J (1971) Coated vesicles and synaptogenesis. A developmental study in the cerebellar cortex of the rat. Brain Res 30:311–322

  4. Armstrong-James M, Johnson R (1970) Quantitative studies of postnatal changes in synapses in rat superficial motor cerebral cortex. Z Zellforsch 110:559–568

  5. Beals JK (1976) Synaptogenesis in the ventromedial hypothalamus of the prenatal mouse. J Comp Neurol 167:361–384

  6. Blue ME, Parnavelas JG (1983) The formation and maturation of synapses in the visual cortex of the rat. I. Qualitative analysis. J Neurocytol 12:599–616

  7. Bodian D (1968) Development of fine structure of spinal cord in monkey fetuses II. Pre-reflex period of long intersegmental reflexes. J Comp Neurol 133:113–166

  8. Bunge MB, Bunge RP, Peterson ER (1967) The onset of synapse formation in spinal cord cultures as studied by electron microscopy. Brain Res 6:728–749

  9. Changeux JP, Danchin A (1976) Selective stabilization of developing synapses as a mechanism for the specification of neuronal networks. Nature 264:705–712

  10. Dunn RC, Westrum LE (1978) Synapse development within the spinal trigeminal nucleus. Brain Res 143:421–436

  11. Dyson SE, Jones DG (1976) The morphological categorization of developing synaptic junctions. Cell Tissue Res 167:363–371

  12. Dyson SE, Jones DG (1980) Quantitation of terminal parameters and their interrelationships in maturing central synapses: A perspective for experimental studies. Brain Res 183:43–59

  13. Foelix RF, Oppenheim R (1974) The development of synapses in the cerebellar cortex of the chick embryo. J Neurocytol 3:277–294

  14. Giordano DL, Cunningham TJ (1978) Naturally occurring neuron death in the superior colliculus of the postnatal rat. Anat Rec 193:402

  15. Glees P, Sheppard BL (1964) Electronmicroscopical studies of the synapse in the developing chick spinal cord. Z Zellforsch 62:356–362

  16. Gray EG (1963) Electron microscopy of presynaptic organelles of the spinal cord. J Anat Lond 97:101–106

  17. Hayes BP, Roberts A (1973) Synaptic junction development in the spinal cord of an amphibian embryo: An electron microscope study. Z Zellforsch 137:251–269

  18. Henrikson CK, Vaughn JE (1974) Fine structural relationships between neurites and radial glial processes in developing mouse spinal cord. J Neurocytol 3:659–657

  19. Hinds JW, Hinds PL (1976) Synapse formation in the mouse olfactory bulb. J Comp Neurol 169:41–62

  20. Johnson R, Armstrong-James M (1970) Morphology of superficial postnatal cerebral cortex with special reference to synapses. Z Zellforsch 110:540–558

  21. Jones DG, Dittmer MM, Reading LC (1974) Synaptogenesis in guniea-pig cerebral cortex: a glutaraldehyde-PTA study. Brain Res 70:245–259

  22. Kawana E, Sandri C, Akert K (1970) Ultrastructure of growth cones in the cerebellar cortex of the neonatal rat and cat. Z Zellforsch 115:284–298

  23. Knyihar E, Csillik B, Rakic P (1978) Transient synapses in the embryonic primate spinal cord. Science 202:1206–1209

  24. Larramendi LMH (1969) Analysis of synaptogenesis in the mouse. In: Llinas R (ed) Neurobiology of cerebellar evolution and development. American Medical Association Education and Research Foundation, Chicago, pp 803–845

  25. McLaughlin BJ (1976) A fine structural and E-PTA study of photoreceptor synaptogenesis in the chick retina. J Comp Neurol 170:347–364

  26. Newman H, Westrum LE (1982) Development and synaptogenesis in fetal olfactory cortex. Neurosci Abstr 8:866

  27. Newman-Gage H, Westrum LE (1983) The fine structural changes in fetal pyriform cortex following deafferentation. Neurosci Abstr 9:321

  28. Ochi J (1967) Elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchung des Bulbus olfactorius der Ratte während der Entwicklung. Z Zellforsch 76:339–349

  29. Oppenheim RW, Foelix RF (1972) Synaptogenesis in the chick embryo spinal cord. Nature Lond 235:126–128

  30. Pick J, Gerdin C, Delemos C (1964) An electronmicroscopic study of developing sympathetic neurons in man. Z Zellforsch 62:402–415

  31. Rees RP, Bunge MB, Bunge RP (1976) Morphological changes in the neuritic growth cone and target neuron during synaptic junction development in culture. J Cell Biol 68:240–263

  32. Stelzner DJ, Martin AH, Scott GL (1973) Early stages of synaptogenesis in the cervical spinal cord of the chick embryo. Z Zellforsch 138:475–488

  33. Vaughn JE, Sims TJ (1978) Axonal growth cones and developing axonal collaterals form synaptic junctions in embryonic mouse spinal cord. J Neurocytol 7:337–363

  34. Vaughn JE, Henrikson CK, Wood JG (1976) Surface specializations of neurites in embryonic mouse spinal cord. Brain Res 110:431–445

  35. West MJ, del Cerro M (1976) Early formation of synapses in the molecular layer of the fetal rat cerebellum. J Comp Neurol 165:137–160

  36. Westrum LE (1975) Electron microscopy of synaptic structures in olfactory cortex of early postnatal rats. J Neurocytol 4:713–732

  37. Westrum LE, Gray EG, Burgoyne RD, Barron J (1983) Synaptic development and microtubule organization. Cell Tissue Res 231:93–102

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Helen Newman-Gage.

Additional information

Dr. Westrum is an Affiliate of the CDMRC at the University of Washington. The research was supported in part by NIH Grants NS09678, NS17111 (NINCDS), and DE04942 (NIDR), DHHS

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Newman-Gage, H., Westrum, L.E. Independent development of presynaptic specializations in olfactory cortex of the fetal rat. Cell Tissue Res. 237, 103–109 (1984). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00229204

Download citation

Key words

  • Synapses
  • Synaptogenesis
  • Development fetal
  • Olfactory cortex
  • Rat