Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

The stomatocyst of Mallomonas acaroides v. muskokana (Chrysophyceae)

  • 90 Accesses

  • 7 Citations

Abstract

The stomatocyst of Mallomanas acaroides v. muskokana is described based on observations made from both live populations and surface sediment remains. The cyst is slightly ovate in shape, covered with evenly spaced, ornamented spines and has a short cylindrical collar with a variable apex and internal annulus surrounding the pore. The spines have a thickened base, a cylindrical middle section and a flattened apex with a ring of finger-like projections. Several immature stages of development are described and the stomatocyst is compared to those described for phylogenetically similar species. Complementary investigations of stomatocysts from both living (planktonic) and sediment collections can greatly facilitate the identification of stomatocyst morphotypes.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Adam, D. P. & A. D. Mahood, 1981. Chrysophyta cysts as potential environmental indicators. Geol. Soc. Bull. Part 1, 92: 839–844.

  2. Asmund, B. & J. Kristiansen, 1986. The genus Mallomonas (Chrysophyceae). Opera Bot. 85: 1–128.

  3. Battarbee, R. W., G. Cronberg & S. Lowry, 1980. Observations on the occurrence of scales and bristles of Mallomonas spp. (Chrysophyceae) in the micro-laminated sediments of a small lake in Finnish North Karelia. Hydrobiol. 71: 225–232.

  4. Brinkhurst, R. O., K. E. Chua & E. Batoosingh, 1969. Modifications in sampling procedures as applied to studies on the bacteria and tubificid oligochaetes inhabiting aquatic sediments. J. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 26: 2581–2593.

  5. Carney, H. J. & C. D. Sandgren, 1983. Chrysophycean cysts: indicators of eutrophication in the recent sediments of Frains Lake, Michigan, USA. Hydrobiol. 101: 195–202.

  6. Charles, D. F. & J. P. Smol, 1988. New methods for using diatoms and chrysophytes to reconstruct past lakewater pH. Limnol. Oceanogr. 33: 1451–1462.

  7. Cronberg, G., 1980. Cyst development in different species of Mallomonas (Chrysophyceae) studied by scanning electron microscopy. Arch. Hydrobiol./Suppl. 56: 421–434.

  8. Cronberg, G., 1986. Chrysophycean cysts and scales in lake sediments: a review. In: J. Kristiansen & R. A. Andersen (eds.), Chrysophytes: aspects and problems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. pp. 281–315.

  9. Cronberg, G., 1988. Variability in size and ultrastructure of the statospore of Mallomonas caudata. Hydrobiologia 161: 31–39.

  10. Cronberg, G. & C. D. Sandgren, 1986. A proposal for the development of standardized nomenclature and terminology for chrysophycean statospores. In: J. Kristiansen & R. A. Andersen (eds.). Chrysophytes: aspects and problems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. pp. 317–328.

  11. Dixit, S. S., A. S. Dixit & R. D. Evans, 1988. Scaled chrysophytes (Chrysophyceae) as indicators of pH in Sudbury, Ontario, lakes. Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 45: 1411–1421.

  12. Duff, K. E. & J. P. Smol, 1988. Chrysophycean stomatocysts from the postglacial sediments of a High Arctic lake. Can. J. Bot 66: 1117–1128.

  13. Glew, J. R., 1988. A portable extruding device for close interval sectioning of unconsolidated core samples. J. Paleolim. 1: 235–239.

  14. Gretz, M. R., M. R. Sommerfeld & D. E. Wujek, 1979. Scaled Chrysophyceae of Arizona: a preliminary survey. J. Arizona-Nevada Acad. Sci. 14: 75–80.

  15. Hibberd, D., 1976. The ultrastructure and taxonomy of the Chrysophyceae and Prymnesiophyceae (Haptophyceae): a survey with some new observations on the ultrastructure of the Chrysophyceae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. (London) 72: 55–80.

  16. Hibberd, D. J., 1977. Ultrastructure of cyst formation in Ochromonas tuberculata (Chrysophyceae). J. Phycol. 13: 309–320.

  17. Nicholls, K. H., 1987. The distinction between Mallomonas acaroides v. acaroides and Mallomonas acaroides v. muskokana var. nova (Chrysophyceae). Can. J. Bot. 65: 1779–1784.

  18. Rybak, M., 1986. The chrysophycean paleocyst flora of the bottom sediments of Kortowskie Lake (Poland) and its ecological significance. Hydrobiologia 140: 67–84.

  19. Rybak, M., 1987. Fossil chryophycean cyst flora of Racze Lake, Wolin Island (Poland) in relation to paleoenvironmental conditions. Hydrobiologia 150: 257–272.

  20. Sandgren, C. D., 1980a. An ultrastructural investigation of resting cyst formation in Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. (Chrysophyceae, Chrysophycota). Protistologica 16: 259–276.

  21. Sandgren, C. D., 1980b. Resting cyst formation in selected chrysophyte flagellates: an ultrastructural survey including a proposal for the phylogenetic significance of interspecific variation in the encystment process. Protistologica 16: 289–303.

  22. Sandgren, C. D., 1981. Characteristics of sexual and asexual resting cyst (statospore) formation in Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. (Chrysophyta). J. Phycol. 17: 199–210.

  23. Sandgren, C. D., 1983. Morphological variability in populations of chrysophycean resting cysts. I. Genetic (interclonal) and encystment temperature effects on morphology. J. Physol. 19: 64–70.

  24. Sandgren, C. D., 1989. SEM investigations of statospore (stomatocyst) development in diverse members of the Chrysophyceae and Synurophyceae. Beiheft zur Nova Hedwigia 95: 45–69.

  25. Sandgren, C. D. & H. J. Carney, 1983. A flora of fossil chrysophycean cysts from the recent sediments of Frains Lake, Michigan, U.S.A. Nova Hedwigia 38: 129–163.

  26. Sandgren, C. D. & J. Flanagin, 1986. Heterothallic sexuality and density-dependent encystment in the chrysophycean flagellate Synura petersenii Korshikov. J. Phycol. 22: 206–216.

  27. Siver, P. A., 1987. The distribution and variation of Synura species (Chrysophyceae) in Connecticut, U.S.A. Nord. J. Bot. 7: 107–116.

  28. Siver, P. A., 1988. Distribution of scaled chrysophytes in 17 Adirondack (New York) lakes with special reference to pH. Can. J. Bot. 66: 1391–1403.

  29. Siver, P. A., 1989a. The distribution of scaled chrysophytes along a pH gradient. Can. J. Bot. 67: 2120–2130.

  30. Siver, P. A., 1989b. The separation of Mallomonas acaroides v. acaroides and v. muskokana (Synurophyceae) along a pH gradient. Beiheft zur Nova Hedwigia 95: 111–117.

  31. Skogstad, A., 1984. Vegetative cells and cysts of Mallomonas intermedia (Mallomonadaceae, Chrysophyceae). Nord. J. Bot. 4: 275–278.

  32. Skuja, H., 1950. Körperbau und Reproduktion bei Dinobryon borgei Lemm. Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 44: 96–107.

  33. Smol, J. P., 1983. Paleophycology of a high arctic lake near Cape Herschel, Ellesmere Island. Can. J. Bot. 61: 2195–2204.

  34. Smol, J. P., 1984. The statospore of Mallomonas pseudocoronata (Mallomonadaceae, Chrysophyceae). Nord. J. Bot. 4: 827–831.

  35. Smol, J. P., 1985. The ratio of diatom frustules to chrysophycean statospores: a useful paleolimnological index. Hydrobiol. 123: 199–208.

  36. Smol, J. P., 1991. Paleolimnology: recent advances and future challenges. In: R. De Bernardi (ed.). Scientific perspectives in theoretical and applied limnology. (In press).

  37. Smol, J. P., D. F. Charles & D. R. Whitehead, 1984. Mallomonadacean (Chrysophyceae) assemblages and their relationships with limnological characteristics in 38 Adirondack (New York) lakes. Can. J. Bot. 62: 911–923.

Download references

Author information

Additional information

This is the second in a series of four papers published in this dedicated issue entitled ‘Application of Chrysophyte Stomatocysts in Paleolimnology’. Dr. C.D. Sandgren served as guest editor for these papers.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Siver, P.A. The stomatocyst of Mallomonas acaroides v. muskokana (Chrysophyceae). J Paleolimnol 5, 11–17 (1991). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00226556

Download citation

Key words

  • Chrysophyceae
  • stomatocyst
  • cyst
  • Mallomonas
  • Adirondacks
  • Connecticut