Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Seasonal variation of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and manganese contents in xylem sap of beech(Fagus sylvatica L.) in a 35-year-old limestone beech forest stand

  • 123 Accesses

  • 18 Citations

Summary

In a 35-year-old calcareous beech forest stand five beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) were felled every 2 weeks, and xylem sap was obtained by means of water displacement from the lowest trunk sections, each 100 cm in length. From mid-October 1988 to mid-October 1989 a total of 130 trees were investigated. The seasonal variations of the Ca, Mg, K and Mn contents, as well as those of pH, show four characteristic phases. Additionally, distribution of the mineral contents along the trunk was studied in four trees. The seasonal increase and decrease of xylem sap mineral contents along the trunk is shown for the characteristic phenophases. The Ca, Mg, K, and Mn contents of xylem saps were determined by means of atomicabsorptionspectrophotometry.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Bollard EG (1953) The use of tracheal sap in the study of apple-tree nutrition. J Exp Bot 4: 363–368

  2. Clark CJ, Holland PT, Smith GS (1986) Chemical composition of bleeding xylem sap from kiwifruit vines. Ann Bot 58: 353–362

  3. Deng X, Weinbaum SA, DeJong TM (1989) Use of labeled nitrogen to monitor transition in nitrogen dependence from storage to current-year uptake in mature walnut trees. Trees 3: 11–16

  4. Essiamah SK (1982) Frühjahrsaktivitäten bei einheimischen Laubbäumen. Dissertation, University of Göttingen

  5. Ferguson AR, Eiseman JA, Dale JR (1981) Xylem sap from Actinidia chinensis: gradients in sap composition. Ann Bot 48: 75–80

  6. Ferguson AR, Eiseman JA, Leonard JA (1983) Xylem sap from Actinidia chinensis: seasonal changes in composition. Ann Bot 51: 823–833

  7. Ferguson IB, Bollard EG (1976) The movement of calcium in woody stems. Ann Bot 40: 1057–1067

  8. Glavac V (1989) Warum die alten und nicht etwa die jungen Bäume, Sträucher oder Kräuter die ersten sind, die von Fremdstoffimmissionen sichtbar geschädigt werden. Sum List Zagreb 6–8: 315–327

  9. Glavac V, Koenies H, Jochheim H, Ebben U (1989) Mineralstoffe im Xylemsaft der Buche und ihre jahreszeitlichen Konzentrationsveränderungen entlang der Stammhöhe. Angew Bot 63: 471–486

  10. Kato T, Yamagata M, Tsukahara S (1984) Seasonal variation in major nitrogenous components in buds, leaves, bark and wood of satsuma mandarin trees. J Jpn Soc Hort Sci 53: 17–22

  11. Kazda M, Weilgony P (1988) Seasonal dynamic of major cations in xylem sap and needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) in stands with different soil solution chemistry. Plant Soil 110: 91–100

  12. König N, Loftfield N, Lüter KL (1989) Atom-Absorptionsspektroskopische Bestimmungsmethoden für Hauptund Spurenelemente in Probelösungen aus Waldökosystem-Untersuchungen. Ber Forschungszentrum Waldökosysteme, B 13: 84

  13. Oland K (1959) Nitrogen reserves of apple trees. Physiol Plant 12: 594–648

  14. Oren R, Schulze E-D, Werk KS, Meyer J (1988) Performance of two Picea abies (L.) Karst. stands at different stages of decline. VII. Nutrient relations and growth. Oecologia 77: 163–173

  15. Osonubi O, Oren R, Werk KS, Schulze ED, Heilmeier H (1988) Performance of two Picea abies (L.) Karst. stands at different stages of decline: IV. Xylem sap concentration of magnesium, calcium, potassium and nitrogen. Oecologia 77: 1–6

  16. Rademacher P, Bauch J, Michaelis W (1988) Einfluß der Elementkonzentration der Bodenlösung auf den Elementgehalt in gesunden und geschädigten Fichten des Standortes “Postturm”. GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht 88/E/55: 215–254

  17. Sauter JJ (1980) Seasonal variation of sucrose content in the xylem sap of Salix. Z Pflanzenphysiol 98: 377–391

  18. Sauter JJ (1981) Seasonal variation of amino acids and amides in the xylem sap of Salix. Z Pflanzenphysiol 101: 399–411

  19. Sauter JJ, Ambrosius T (1986) Changes in the partitioning of carbohydrates in the wood during bud break in Betula pendula Roth. J Plant Physiol 124: 31–43

  20. Stark N, Spitzner C (1985) Xylem sap analysis for determining the nutrient status and growth of Pinus ponderosa. Can J For Res 15: 783–790

  21. Stark N, Spitzner C, Essig D (1985) Xylem sap analysis for determining nutritional status of trees: Pseudotsuga menziesii. Can J For Res 15: 429–437

  22. Suzuki T, Kohno K (1983) Changes in the nitrogen compounds of xylem sap of mulberry (Morus alba L.) during regrowth after pruning. Ann Bot 51: 441–448

  23. Titus JS, Kang SM (1982) Nitrogen metabolism, translocation and recycling in apple trees. Hort Rev 4: 204–246

  24. Tromp J (1979) Seasonal variations in the composition of xylem sap of apple with respect to K, Ca, Mg, and N. Z Pflanzenphysiol 94: 189–194

  25. Tromp J, Ovaa JC (1967) Seasonal variation in the amino acid composition of xylem sap of apple. NZ J Plant Physiol 57: 11–21

  26. Tromp J, Ovaa JC (1985) Response of young apple trees to time of nitrogen fertilisation with respect to nitrogen, potassium, and calcium levels in xylem sap, new growth, and the tree as a whole. J Plant Physiol 119: 301–309

  27. Weilgony P (1986) Kationenkonzentrationen im Xylemsaft von Cornus mas, Cornus sanguinea und Picea abies. Dissertation, University of Vienna, 131 p

  28. Wutscher HK, McDonald RF (1986) Mineral elements and organic acids in branch and root xylem sap of healthy and blight-affected sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) trees. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 111: 426–429

  29. Ziegler H (1964) Storage, mobilisation and distribution of reserve material in trees. In: Zimmermann (ed) The formation of wood in forest trees. Academic Press, New York, pp 303–320

  30. Ziegler H (1968) Biologische Aspekte der Kernholzbildung. Holz Roh Werkstoff 26: 61–68

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Glavac, V., Koenies, H. & Ebben, U. Seasonal variation of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and manganese contents in xylem sap of beech(Fagus sylvatica L.) in a 35-year-old limestone beech forest stand. Trees 4, 75–80 (1990). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00226069

Download citation

Key words

  • Calcium
  • Fagus sylvatica
  • Magnesium
  • Manganese
  • Mineral content
  • Potassium
  • Seasonalvariation
  • Xylem sap