Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Interaction between the atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers

  • 43 Accesses

  • 3 Citations

Abstract

The two-layer system of an atmosphere over water bodies is reduced to a single-layer problem. Values of the interfacial quantities, such as the friction velocity, the surface velocity, the angles, α and β, between the surface shear stress and the geostrophic wind velocity and the surface wind velocity, respectively, and the surface roughness, all of which depend upon external parameters, such as the geostrophic wind and stratifications, are obtained. The geostrophic drag coefficient C d, the geostrophic wind coefficient C f, and the angles α, and β, of the turbulent flow at the sea-air interface are functions of a dimensionless number, mfG/kg, with S 1 and S 2 as two free stratification parameters. The surface roughness is uniquely determined from the geostrophic wind rather than from the wind profile in the boundary layer.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Batchelor, G. K.: 1949, ‘Diffusion in a Field of Homogeneous Turbulence’, Australian J. Sci. Res. A2, 437–450.

  2. Blackadar, A. K.: 1962, ‘The Vertical Distribution of Wind and Turbulent Exchange in a Neutral Atmosphere’, J. Geophys. Res. 67, 3095–3102.

  3. Brutsaert, W.: 1972, ‘Radiation, Evaporation, and the Maintenance of Turbulence under Stable Conditions in the Lower Atmosphere, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 2, 309–325. 1972.

  4. Busch, N. E. and Panofsky, H. A.: 1968, ‘Recent Spectra of Atmospheric Turbulence’, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 132–148.

  5. Calder, K. L.: 1949, ‘The Criterion of Turbulence in a Fluid of Variable Density with Particular Reference to Conditions in the Atmosphere’, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 71–88.

  6. Charnock, H.: 1955, ‘Wind Stress on a Water Surface’, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 639–640.

  7. Clarke, R. H.: 1970, ‘Observational Studies in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer’, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 96, 91–114.

  8. Conte, S. D.: 1965, Elementary Numerical Analysis, McGraw-Hill, New York.

  9. Dake, J. M. K. and Harleman, D. R. F.: 1966, ‘An Analytical and Experimental Investigation of Thermal Stratification in Lakes and Ponds’, Hydrodynamics Laboratory Report No. 99, MIT.

  10. Edinger, J. E. and Geyer, J. C: 1965, Heat Exchange in the Environment, The Johns Hopkins University Cooling Water Studies for Edison Electric Institute, Research Project RP-49.

  11. Fichtl, G. H. and McVehil, G. E.: 1970, ‘Longitudinal and Lateral Spectra of Turbulence in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer at Kennedy Space Center’, J. Appl. Meteorol. 9, 51–63.

  12. Kondo, J.: 1962, ‘‘Observations on Wind and Temperature Profiles Near the Ground’, Science Reports, Ser. 5, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan’, Geophys. 14, 41–56.

  13. Laikhtman, D. L.: 1964, Physics of the Boundary Layer of Atmosphere, Sivan Press, Israel.

  14. Laikhtman, D. L.: 1966, ‘The Dynamics of the Boundary Layers of the Atmosphere and of the Sea with Interactions and Nonlinear Effects Taken into Account’, Izv. Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 2, 1017–1025.

  15. Luther, F. M.: 1970, A Numerical Model of the Energy Transfer Processes in Lower Atmosphere, Dept. of Agriculture Engineering and Dept. of Water Sciences and Engineering Contributions in Atmospheric Sciences No. 2, University of California, Davis.

  16. Pandolfo, J. P.: 1969, ‘Motions with Inertial and Diurnal Period in Numerical Model of the Navifacial Boundary Layer’, J. Marine Res. 27, 301–317.

  17. Panofsky, H. A.: 1961, ‘An Alternative Derivation of the Diabatic Wind Profile’, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 87, 109–110.

  18. Panofsky, H. A., Blackadar, A. K., and McVehil, G. E.: 1960, ‘The Diabatic Wind Profile’, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 390–398.

  19. Sellers, W. D.: 1962, ‘A Simplified Derivation of the Diabatic Wind Profile’, J. Atmos. Sci. 19, 180–181.

  20. Sundaram, T. R., Easterbrook, C. C., Piech, K. R., and Rudinger, G.: 1969, ‘An Investigation of the Physical Effects of Thermal Discharge into Cayuga Lake (Analytical Study)’, CAL No. VT-2616-0-2, Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory, Inc.

  21. Swinbank, W. C.: 1964, ‘The Exponential Wind Profile’, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 90, 119–135.

  22. Taylor, G. I.: 1935, ‘Statistical Theory of Turbulence’, Proc. Roy. Soc. London A151, 421–478.

  23. Yamamoto, G.: 1959, ‘Theory of Turbulent Transfer in Non-neutral Conditions’, J. Meteorol. Japan 37, 60–70.

  24. Yamamoto, G., Yasauda, N., and Shimanuki, A.: 1968, ‘Effect of Thermal Stratification on the Ekman Layer, J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan 46, 442–456.

  25. Yeh, G. T.: 1969, ‘Turbulent Diffusion by Forced Convection’, Ph.D. Thesis, School of Civil Engineering, Cornell University.

  26. Yeh, G. T.: 1973, ‘The Effect of Thermal Stratification and Evaporation on Geostrophic Drag Coefficient in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer’, Monthly Weather Rev. 101, 617–623.

Download references

Author information

Additional information

Formerly Visiting Research Associate, Applied Physics Branch, Earth Observations Division, NASA-Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston, Texas.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Yeh, G. Interaction between the atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 7, 21–37 (1974). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00224970

Download citation

Keywords

  • Boundary Layer
  • Surface Roughness
  • Wind Velocity
  • Wind Profile
  • Surface Shear