A physical map of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) chloroplast DNA has been generated using Sall, Pstl, Kpnl and HindIII restriction endonucleases. Southern blots to single and double digests by these enzymes were hybridized with 32P-dCTP nick-translated Kpnl probes, which were individually isolated from agarose gels. The plastid genome was found to be circular (151 kbp), to contain a repeated sequence of about 25 kbp, and to have small and large single copy regions of approximately 20 and 81 kbp, respectively. Heterologous probes from spinach and Euglena containing psbA, rbcL, atpA or rrnA structural genes were also hybridized with such single and double restriction enzyme digests and mapped on this circular chlorpolast genome. The genetic map was found to be co-linear with that of spinach and many other higher plants.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Bohnert HJ, Crouse EJ, Schmidt JM: Nucleic acids and proteins in plants. In: Boulter D, Parthier D (eds) Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology. Springer, Berlin, 1982, 14B: pp. 475–530.
Palmer JD, Thompson WF: Chloroplast DNA rearrangements are more frequent when a large inverted repeat sequence is lost. Cell 29:537–550, 1982.
Weil JH, Mubumbila M, Kuntz M, Keller M, Steinmetz A, Crouse EJ, Burkard G, Gillemant P, Selden R, McIntosh L, Bogorad L, Loffelhardt W, Mucke H, Bohnert HJ: Gene mapping studies and sequence determination of chloroplast transfer RNAs from various photosynthetic organisms. Molekulyarhaya Biologiya 17:1147–1153, 1983.
Whitfeld PR, Bottomley W: Organization and structure of chloroplast genes. Ann Rev. Plant Physiol 34:279–310, 1983.
Westhoff P, Nelson N, Bunemann H, Herrmann RG: Localization of genes for coupling factor subunits on the spinach plastid chromosome. Curr Genet 4:109–120, 1981.
Alt J, Winter P, Sebald W, Moser JG, Schedel R, Westhoff P, Herrmann RG: Localization and nucleotide-sequence of the gene for the ATP synthase proteolipid on the spinach plastid chromosome. Curr Genet 7:129–138, 1983.
Driesel AJ, Speirs J, Bohnert HJ: Spinach chloroplast mRNA for a 32,000 dalton polypeptide. Size and location on the physical map of the chloroplast DNA. Biochim Biophys Acta 314:202–210, 1980.
Morris J, Herrmann RG: Nucleotide sequence of the gene for P680 chlorophyll a apoprotein of the photosystem 11 reaction center from spinach. Nucleic Acid Res 12:2837–2850, 1984.
Whitfeld PR, Bottomley W: Mapping of the gene for the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase on spinach chloroplast DNA. Biochem Int 1:172–178, 1980.
de Heij HT, Lustig H, Moeskops DM, Bovenberg WA, Bisany C, Groot GSP: Chloroplast DNAs of spinach, petunia and spirodela have a similar gene organization. Curr Genet 7:1–6, 1983.
Willey DL, Huttly AK, Phillips AL, Gray JC: Localization of the gene for cytochrome f in pea chloroplast DNA. Mol Gen Genet 189:85–89, 1983.
Montandon PE, Stutz E: Nucleotide sequence of a Euglena gracilis chloroplast genome region coding for the elongation factor Tu; evidence for a spliced mRNA. Nucleic Acid Res 11:5877–5892, 1983.
Stiegler GL, Matthews HM, Bingham SE, Hallick RB: The gene for the large subunit of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase in Euglene gracilis chloroplast DNA: location cloning and evidence for an intervening sequence. Nucleic Acids Res 10:3427–3444, 1982.
Seyer P, Kowallik KV, Herrmann RG: A physical map of Nicotiana tobacum plasmid DNA including the location of structural genes of ribosomal RNAs and the large subunit of ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Curr Genet 3:189–204, 1981.
Vedel F, Mathieu C: Physical mapping of chloroplast DNA from normal and cytoplasmic male sterile (radish cytoplasm) lines of Brassica napus. Curr Genet 7:13–20, 1983.
Spielmann A, Ortiz W, Stutz E: The soybean chloroplast genome: construction of a circular restriction site map and localization of DNA regions encoding the genes for rRNAs, the large subunit of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase and the 32kd protein of the photosystem II reaction center. Mol Gen Genet 190:5–12, 1983.
Ko K, Straus NA, Williams JP: The localization and orientation of specific genes in the chloroplast chromosome of Vicia faba. Curr Genet 7:255–263, 1983.
Palmer JD: Physical and gene mapping of chloroplast DNA from Atriplex triangularis and Cucumis sativa. Nucleic Acids Res 10:1593–1605, 1982.
Palmer JD, Stein DB: Chloroplast DNA from the fern Osmunda cinnamomea: physical organization, gene localization and comparison to angiosperm chloroplast DNA. Curr Genet 5:165–170, 1982.
Howe CJ, Auffret AD, Doherty A, Bowman CM, Dyer TA, Gray JC: Localization and nucleotide sequence of the gene for the proton-translocation subunit of wheat chloroplast ATP synthase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:6903–6907, 1983.
Kolodner R, Tewari KK: The molecular size and conformation of the chloroplast DNA from higher plants. Biochim Biophys Acta 402:372–390, 1975.
Smith GE, Summers MD: The bidirectional transfer of DNA and RNA to nitrocellulose or diazobenzyloxymetholpaper. Analytical Biochem 109:123–129, 1980.
Maniatis T, Fritsch EF, Sambrook J: Molecular cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, 1982.
Ma C, Tyrawska D, Smith MA: Isolation and characterization of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) chloroplast DNA. Molecular and Cellular Biochem 65: 181–188, 1985.
About this article
Cite this article
Ma, C., Smith, M.A. The chloroplast genome of Carthamus tinctorius . Mol Cell Biochem 68, 139–150 (1985). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00219378
- physical map