Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Discriminative properties of phencyclidine in mice: generalization to ketamine and monohydroxy metabolites

  • 34 Accesses

  • 7 Citations


The discriminative properties of phencyclidine (PCP) and their generalization to the effects of ketamine and monohydroxylated PCP metabolites were examined in C57BL/6cr mice utilizing two-lever operant procedures. As previously reported for pigeons and rats, PCP was discriminable in this species at a training dose of 3.0 mg/kg. PCP discriminability generalized to test doses of the drug that did not influence response rates (as low as 1.75 mg/kg) and also to ketamine (10 mg/kg). Both PCP monohydroxylated metabolites were active in mice. PCP partially generalized to the monohydroxylated metabolite, 1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)4-hydroxy piperidine (PCHP) but not to 1-(1-phenyl-4-hydroxycyclohexyl) piperidine (PPC), which is consistent with previous reports on rats. The generalization of the PCP stimulus to PCHP was not as extensive in mice as previously reported for rats, suggesting that it may be less potent in this species. Although PCP discriminability generalized to PCHP, this generalization required PCHP doses that would produce tissue concentrations much higher than could result from discriminable doses of PCP. Therefore, the PCHP metabolite does not appear to mediate PCP discriminability in C57BL/6cr mice.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Balster RL, Chait LD (1978) The behavioral effects of phencyclidine in animals. NIDA Res Monogr Ser 21, pp 53–65

  2. Boggan WO, Middaugh LD (1987) Doubtful role for phencyclidine metabolites in PCP enhancement of QNB binding. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 26:671–676

  3. Boggan WO, Evans MG, Wallis CJ (1982) Effect of phencyclidine on [3H]-QNB binding. Life Sci 30:1193–1200

  4. Boggan WO, Stringer AJ, Faught K, Middaugh LD (1987) Effect of phencyclidine and two monohydroxy metabolites on 3H QNB binding in vivo in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 26:847–849

  5. Holtzman SG (1980) Phencyclidine-like discriminative effects of opioids in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 214:614–619

  6. McMillan DE, Hardwick WC, Cannon DJ, Couch L (1986) Relationship of plasma phencyclidine levels to phencyclidine discrimination in the pigeon. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 25:117–121

  7. Poling AD, White FJ, Appel JB (1979) Discriminative stimulus properties of phencyclidine. Neuropharmacology 18:459–463

  8. Shannon HE (1981) Evaluation of phencyclidine analogs on the basis of their discriminative stimulus properties in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 216:543–551

  9. Shannon HE (1983) Pharmacological analysis of the phencyclidine like discriminative stimulus properties of narcotic derivative in rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 222:146–151

  10. Slifer BL, Balster RL (1985) A comparison of the discriminative stimulus properties of phencyclidine, given intraperitoneally or intraventricularly in rats. Neuropharmacology 24:1175–1179

  11. Teal JJ, Holtzman SG (1980) Discriminative stimulus effects of cyclazocine in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 212:368–376

  12. Wenger GR, Dews PB (1976) The effects of phencyclidine, ketamine, d-amphetamine and pentobarbital on schedule-controlled behavior in the mouse. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 196:616–624

  13. Willetts J, Chapman MY, Balster RL (1986) Discriminative stimulus effects of 2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid (APH) in phencyclidine-trained rats. Soc Neurosci Abstr 12:909

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Middaugh, L.D., Favara, J.P., Boggan, W.O. et al. Discriminative properties of phencyclidine in mice: generalization to ketamine and monohydroxy metabolites. Psychopharmacology 96, 381–384 (1988).

Download citation

Key words

  • Phencyclidine
  • Monohydroxylated metabolites
  • Drug discrimination
  • C57
  • Mice
  • PCP
  • Ketamine