The U. S. research university, as an institution, has responded to changes in its environment, including significant participation with business firms in joint R&D ventures, in such a way as to preserve the essence of the academic ideal of disinterested pursuit of knowledge, although with some significant compromises. In an evolutionary sense, these responses have been characterized far more by adapations to external change than by conscious attempts to influence these changes.
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I am grateful to David B. Audretsch, Nancy B. Avery, Albert N. Link, John T. Scott, and Karen E. Wetterhahn for their thoughtful comments and advice.
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Baldwin, W.L. The U.S. research university and the joint venture: Evolution of an institution. Rev Ind Organ 11, 629–653 (1996). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00214827
- joint ventures
- research and development